The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefaction, Almost, Republic of Astrakhan 2 Abstract The Republic of Astrakhan is lasting to expand its comprehensive petroleum reserves in the Tenting territory of the northeastern separate of the Caspian Sea. Ample quantities of by-issue sulfur are entity performed as a conclusion of the disdisconnection of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas performed in the territory. Closing of topical chaffers and economic considerations proviso the transmitted outlets for byissue sulfur and the establishup of abundance sulfur is a followly a possible economic and environmental amenability.
Thus, ewe applications for re-use of by-issue sulfur that allure avail territoryal economies including subordinatestanding, paving and after a whileer composition are entity expanded. One cautious application involves the cleanup and composition of mercury at a Astrakhan chemical set. During 19 years of influence at the Palomar Skimpier color-alkali evolution quickness, aggravate 900 tons of mercury was obsolete to the stain excluded and subordinateneath the establishings.
The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefaction (Almost) is imported a team to expand and present a vacuum- assisted eager course to elicit the mercury from the stain and centralize it as ere, elemental mercury, which allure then be discourseed using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPAS) course. The use of topically performed sulfur allure recycle a allowable industrial by-issue to discourse exposed after a whileer and requite it secured for repay to the environment, thereby aiding to genesis-out two problems at uninterruptedly.
SPAS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low mist exigency and low solubility, and then tangiblely encapsulates the symbolical in a persistent, monolithic substantial sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is settled in a substantial conceive very considerable enjoy stanch cinnabar, the conceive in which it is endow in naturalness. Foregoing lore and expandment has shown that the course can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wet% mercury in the substantial conceive, time tranquil discourse very severe regulatory types for allocable mercury (0. 025 MGM/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure).
The lore and expandment to deploy Astrakhan recycled sulfur for effectant applications picturesquely in this article is entity guideed after a while aid from the Interpolitical Science and Technology Center (CIST) and the U. S. Department of Energy Annihilates Tort Prolongation Prevention ( Introduction Since the breakup of the conceiveer Soviet Union, Astrakhan, enjoy the other newly dogged states (EN'S), has enthralled steps to reestablish its administration from the foundation up. Unenjoy other feeble INS so-far, Astrakhan is propitious to own gigantic possible petroleum reserves in the Tenting territory close to the Caspian Sea.
Opportunities to commission these congenital natural media own attracted interpolitical boarding excellent (e. G. , Covenanter, Complexion, Nine-Agape) enabling flying subordinatestanding and deployment of fruitful oil and gas wells. For illustration, Covenanter and the National Astrakhan society "Gunnysacks" conceiveed separatenership disclosed as Tenderloins TCO), which is popularly submissive 13 pet metric tons (284,000 able/d) of oil per year and expects to arrive-at 23 pet metric tons per year by 2006. Figure 1 . Map of Astrakhan and the excluded territory Kananga Salaam's Agrarian Estate Kananga Figure 2.
North Caspian Sea (left) and Kananga territory (right) where Agape-CO allure guide petroleum scrutiny Agape-CO has attested an contract after a while the Astrakhan legislation for expandment uprights in the Kananga oil arenas and expects judicious evolution of 22 pet metric tons per year in 2008, increasing to as considerable as 60 pet metric tons re year. The residuum of Kananga and Tenting oil arenas in Astrakhan can be seen in Figures 1 and 2. Astrakhan oil and gas is deep in hydrogen sulfide (HAS), which is displaced as elemental sulfur during the evolution course.
As a conclusion, gigantic quantities of by- issue sulfur are performed and stored in ample stockpiles (see Figure 3). Astrakhan stated oil & gas companies popularly recaggravate 2,000 to 3,000 metric tons per day of elemental sulfur from their issue streams (approximately 500 tons of elemental sulfur is cureed for entire 100,000 barrels of elicited trolled in Astrakhan) . In 2000, whole universe evolution of elemental sulfur was 57. 4 pet tons, including 1. 4 pet tons from Astrakhan . The popular sulfur stockpile exceeds 8 pet tons at Tenderloins and is ample abundance to be seen from the Space Shuttle.
The Astrakhan Ministry of Environment, Figure 3. Sulfur storage at the Tenderloins resthither encircling the continuous establish up of these quickness "mountains of sulfur" allure enjoin fines for lived storage. Further, as petroleum evolution increases in the future years, sulfur curey allure soar proportionally. Agape-CO expects curey of sulfur allure soar to 5,770 metric tons/day at the Kananga Arena and Tenderloins is contrivancening an abstractedal 2,400 ton/day quickness to regulate sulfur from the curey of animated natural gas at the Tenting arena .
Anticipating possible problems associated after a while this expected establishup of by-issue sulfur, Engaging, the carehither separatener in Agape-CO, commissioned Battle Memorial Institute to guide a consider to assess possible applications for abundance sulfur . Battle verified a sum of transmitted chaffers for recycled sulfur in Europe and the U. S. Including phosphate fertilizer (50%), sulfuric animated, detergents, and other chemicals, metal and fiber industries, delineate genesis, rubber issues, article and pharmaceuticals.
Lack of topical chaffers and the absorb associated after a while bearing of the sulfur to obscure chaffers create these options hither beautiful in Astrakhan. The consider focused for-this-reason, on applications that would own interchangeable avail to the topical administration, e. G. , use of sulfur stated asphalt and firm for paving, subordinatestanding, and after a whileer composition. Sulfur can De uses to abstracted petroleum-Dates bitumen in asphalt paving applications. As considerable as 50% by ponderosity of the asphalt preserve in asphalt firm can be replaced after a while elemental sulfur.
This would grant Astrakhan, Russia, and other conceiveer Soviet Union countries to catholicly augment the output of their Figure 4. Sulfur mitigated firm courseway appearance at Tenting asphalt refineries and aid territory-ample endeavors to upgrade the path infrastructure. Furthermore, the use of sulfur in asphalt firm does not insist-upon any particular additives and natural asphalt course paving equipment can live to be utilized as the atmosphere of the asphalt preserve is naturally kept over the flowing sharp-end of allowable.
In abstracted to the use of sulfur in asphalt firm, polymer-mitigated sulfur can be utilized as a 100% renovation of the Portland unite preserve in firm. The properties of polymer-mitigated firm are resembling to Portland-stated firm. Polymer-mitigated firm is already a particularty firm in Canada and the United States and is periodical by the American Firm Institute. In 2002, K Interconnect (SKI), JSP, coordinated a ample-scale appearance contrivance at Tenting to induct a mom elongate of courseway using a type asphalt set and 2000 tons of a sulfur firm commutation (Figure 4).
More of-late, a sulfur augmented asphalt appearance was completed by the society Reconsider in Tartar, the oil excellent of Astrakhan. These appearance contrivances own accelerationed disclosed the door to new opportunities for effectant endues of sulfur after a whilein Astrakhan and excluded countries and verified areas for further engineering lore and expandment. For illustration, ample-scale evolution of sulfur polymer in Astrakhan allure insist-upon particularized equipment to certainly manage commutation parameters. For optimal execution and securedty, transmitted asphalt paving equipment allure insufficiency to be mitigated for abatement of redolent emissions.
While the popular conceiveulation of sulfur polymer has been successfully presentd, abstractedal R&D may make-known new conceiveulations that curtail aggravateall absorb and mend execution. Sulfur Polymer Elemental sulfur is a thermoplastic symbolical that can be fuseed at ICC, adulterated after a while whole and then cooled to conceive a substantial issue. The U. S. Bureau of Mines steadfast that it could be reacted after a while the abstracted of a feeble size of fundamental modifiers to conceive a sulfur polymer unite (SSP) that has adventitious power and durability compared after a while elemental sulfur . When aggregately after a while whole, SSP an be used in settle of ordinary, hydraulic (e. . , Portland) unite firm for subordinatestanding applications. These embody poured firm footings, floors, walls, tanks, etc. And pre-cast firm issues such as course barriers and escort rails, railcourse ties, curbs, blocks/walls, etc. ) Joined possible applications embody erroneous of synthetic whole to conceive coursebed subordinatepayment and for use in conceiveing deceptive retest at ten 011 curey sites In ten Caspian sea. In neat applications, ten sulfur polymer is hot over the fuse atmosphere, adulterated after a while sand or stone whole, ND then cooled to conceive firm.
SSP firm has lofty compressive power and is dense to invasion in rancorous chemical environments so it is spiritual for use in chemical evolution facilities. Unenjoy ordinary hydraulic unite, SSP firms do not insist-upon instil for mixing and curing and thus are befitting for use in sterile environments. Possible opportunities to use SSP for subordinatestanding, paving, and chemical/industrial applications are threshold to appear to acceleration offset the insufficiency for low-absorb establishing symbolicals and infrastructure upgrades in Astrakhan's post-Soviet administration.
Further implementation of subordinatestanding applications for recycled sulfur in Astrakhan is one of the objectives of the popular contrivance. Issue of the compressiveness to result viable effectant end-use issues from the by-issue sulfur allure curtail the privative economic amenability associated after a while secured storage and/or dispensation of the sulfur reserves, and propagate a possible actual proceeds as the applications for SSP are commissioned. The absorb for submissive and delivering these issues allure be minimized stated on the availability of raw symbolicals and topical evolution.
Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Subordinate aid from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BUN) has pioneered the use of SSP for environmental compensation and after a whileer regulatement applications including composition of a ample collocate of exposed, radioactive, and adulterated after a whileers . SSP can be used to singly tangiblely encapsulate the after a whileer (SSP miscalculations) and has been presentd for discourseing radioactive and adulterated after a whileer infected ash, stain, sludge, and evaporator centralizes. In a foregoing endeavor sponsored by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, BUN stated feasibility of using Astrakhan sulfur for the evolution of sulfur polymer unite (SSP) and its use for the encapsulation of after a whileer . Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPAS) is a connected course that chemically stabilizes and tangiblely encapsulates the after a whileer. The perishing course was further of-late expanded to specifically discourse elemental mercury and mercury infected stain, sludge and dregs. The conclusioning latest after a whileer conceive issue is persistent subordinate long-term dispensation provisions and successfully immobilizers contaminants from the environment.
SPAS is a two-extent course. In the leading extent, mercury and/or mercury-infected symbolicals are reacted after a while the SSP and other reagents to conceive mercuric sulfide, which has a low mist exigency and low solubility. The stabilized mercury issue is a dispersible scatter that is then hot after a while SSP to conceive a inhomogeneous molten commutation. When cooled, the issue is tangiblely encapsulated in a substantial brick-enjoy symbolical. The latest issue is non-dispersible and retains mercury from escaping in the gas front or through leaching in foundationwater. Foregoing Figure 5.
Pilot-scale SPAS Course equipment inducted at BUN lore and plaunite has shown that the course can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wet% mercury in the substantial conceive, time tranquil discourse very severe regulatory types for allocable mercury (0. 025 MGM/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). A pilot-scale SPAS course classification is shown in Figure 5. Mercury Problems at Palomar The Palomar Chemical Set in eastern Astrakhan was contrived by the Soviet Union threshold in the mid-asses The ample (10 clear mile) compound employed 6500, including 500 engineers.
Among other chemicals, chlorine and mordant soda ere routinely performed by electrolysis of a salt disconnection in a mercury cathode cell. Typical of this evolution course, spills and losses of mercury to evaporation were beggarly. One narration estimates that the whole size of mercury obsolete was in the neighborhood of 3000 tons . Since the drop of the Soviet Union, revenues from set influences own sunk drastically, and the set is in financial and tangible disrepair. For illustration, ample spills of toxic mercury used for the evolution of chlorine and alkali own bybygone after a whileout remediation due to closing of funds.
Remediation of mercury-infected stain t Palomar, in collaboration after a while a connected contrivance aided by the Interpolitical Science and Technology Center (CIST) is one of the objectives of this deviceed genesis. A vacuum-assisted eager retaliation classification allure be used to displace and curtail mercury from the stain subordinateneath and encircling the set (see accomplice article at the AREAS meeting). The residual elemental mercury that is placid allure then be discourseed using SPAS. Subordinate aid from CIST and DOE IPP for this newly funded contrivance, a pilot-set allure be contrived at Palomar to result SSP from Astrakhan sulfur.
The conclusioning SSP ill be used to guide diverse appearance contrivances including the evolution of SSP-stated firm issues and the composition of residual mercury that has been displaced from the stain subordinateneath and encircling the Palomar Chemical Plant. Summary and Conclusions Although faced after a while sundry of the opposed problems shared by other conceiveer Soviet countries, Astrakhan is propitious to own ample reserves of petroleum that are sound now entity commissioned. However, Khaki oil and gas is typically lofty in HAS that must be displaced antecedent to sale on the disclosed chaffer.
The by-issue sulfur popularly as Eliminate interchangeable pathways Tort recycling Ana re-use Ana Is accumulating at a flying rate. Aggravate 8 pet tons are already entity stored and after a while new oil reserves scheduled to follow on length after a whilein the direct diverse years, this size allure live to amplify flyingly. If left unresolved, the possible environmental and economic liabilities associated after a while the stored sulfur allure embarrass an increasing miss for the interpolitical oil & gas oil companies carehither in Astrakhan.
However, after a while creative disconnections such as picturesquely in this article, a contrivance for sustainable expandment that balances the abatement of by-products after a while alienate absorb-abating recycling options can be realized. Acknowledgements The authors would enjoy to felicitate Mr.. James Noble (US DOE), Mr.. Andrew Hood, and Ms. Laura Schmidt-Williams (US Department of State) for their aid of this contrivance and Dry. Arturo Kankakee (Palomar Chemical Plant) for his maintenance in providing logistical maintenance.