Marketing Activities In the Global Alcoholic Spirits Market

Introduction The global alcoholic beverages diligence was set to enjoy manufactured encircling 183bn litres at the end of 2004, increasing steadily at closely 2% annually elapsed the end of the 20th era. The diligence is membered into the irreferring-to types of alcoholic absorbs, and to-boot the incongruous irreferring-to infamys exhibited by sundry diligence players. Balance the conclusive stranger of decades, a calculate of mergers and acquisitions opposite the diligence, elevatebalance potent trafficing hostilitiess and potent infamy recollection, enjoy seen the emergence of a knot of capacious sturdys who enjoy dominated the nucleus beverage traffics of wine, beer and motives. Companies such as Diageo and Constellation Brands enjoy methodic themselves as global traffic guideers, and enjoy patent clear key trafficing strategies to conclude and peacerain traffic divide. This season rendezvouses on the very-much competitive motives traffic, wnear the top 3 senior competitors peace closely 60% of traffic divide (Diageo Investor Conference, 2010). We obsubserve peacerictedally at Diageo, Pernod Ricard and Bacardi, and parallel the alikeities and differences in the sturdys’ avenuees to consequence guile, packaging and elevation which emgovernment these motives to obsubserve competitiveness. 1. Diligence and Traffic Trends Before attempting to paraphernalia the peacericted trafficing avenuees of the top motives motives, it is relevant to embrace the new-fangled leans in the diligence which ponder the deficiency for, and the figure of, the trafficing strategies adopted by these sturdys. Competition has constantly been proud the key alcoholic beverage motives, but the conclusive thirty years or so enjoy seen prosper upon prosper of mergers, acquisitions and strategic alliances formed amongst interpolitical and persomal players which enjoy cogent competery forciblely (Zorova et al, 2010). Whilst previously this may enjoy been driven by a deficiency to vary portfolios and dislean geographical nearnesss, the conclusive decade or so has seen an increasing lean amongst these sturdys wnear they are aiming to shrivel their portfolios to lawful a scant calculate of global infamys, and adduce alove trafficing strategies throughout[1]. Whatalways the reasons after it, the motive diligence today is characterised by proud sturdy concentration: Spirits Diligence Analysis (2008) Adapted from Application Databank 2009 fame Recent years enjoy to-boot witnessed the so-called “premiumisation” of alcoholic beverages, whereby the encouragement calculate and superior purchasing government of the intermediate arcollocate in methodic, and chiefly in emerging nations, lean to be voluntary to lavish elevate coin on voluptuousness motives in enjoin to unfold their new consisting and riches. Potent infamys and reputes enjoy built up customer perceptions of peacericted infamys or contrarys as the top reward motives of their predicament (vodka, gin) and buying Smirnoff vodka or Bombay Sapphire gin for issue, is seen a ponderion of the consumer’s good-fortune (Novak, 2004). Finally, the global recession undoubtedly had a forcible application on the on-trade motive sales in pubs, bars and clubs in new-fangled dates. Delay fewer fellow-creatures venturing out for absorbs and a superior segregation of beverage options on the abunsport shelves, consumers enjoy been encouraged to question oral absorbing morality and mannerisms creating a husk of blurring of gregarious absorbing refinements: vodka has conclude underneathneathneath increasing constraining in its cultural cheap of Russia, but is thriving in the US, India and Gersundry wnear it has mushroomed in approvedity amongst the new period of motive consumers[2]. (Gauder, 2008). 2. Marketing manoeuvre Marketing mix is an relevant concept in novel trafficing and according to Kotler & Armpotent (2006), it is the set of calm variables or tools that a sturdy blends concurrently in enjoin to conclude the repartee that it hanker-fors in the target traffic. Thus the trafficing mix manoeuvre consists of all immanent activities the sturdy can underneathneathcaptivate to wave the claim for its consequence, and conbrawny strategic despatch among the organisation and its customers (Proctor, 2000). The key variables which include the trafficing mix are public as the foul-mouthed “P”s of trafficing (Kotler & Armstrong, (2004): Product – The substantial consequence or benefit exhibited to the customer that may to-boot confound concomitant benefits or conveniences, includes trafficing choices on how to adlawful consequence diagnosiss such as packaging, infamy, benefit and sort in enjoin to aid the organisations objectives and prepare for claim. Pricing – The arrangement of effectively contrast a cost for a peacericted consequence or benefit. It is repeatedly separated into two sunders: cost determination (certain on referring-to costs of alove exhibitings) and cost government (proper costs to sales situations such as geographic precipitation or sales situation of persomal distributors). Placement – Decisions associated delay rankification channels that mould the consequence or benefit conducive to target consumers, including choosing among plain customer path or using intermediatemen and choosing the calculate and tediousness of rankification channels. Promotion –Strategies to declare the appraises and benefits of a sturdy’s exhibitings and vend the consequence or benefit to targeted consumers. Decisions confoundd rock encircling museising, sundericular vending, resources, customer kinsmen and the budget. The requisite motives in this traffic enjoy to exemplification delay and work their trafficing strategies repeatedly to obsubserve competitiveness. For the purposes of this season, we succeed obsubserve at the two aspects of consequence and elevation in elevate sundericular as they are irresistible for this traffic. 2.1Product Product prudence and manoeuvre are of greatest moment to motives motives, primaryly owing they sundericularize end and plainion of posse courage (and key traffic indicators such as effect, traffic divide and repute are hanging on them), and secondly owing they enjoy a proset wave on other trafficing mix elements such as museising, vending, rankification and pricing, making consequence twain a ingredient and a determinant of the sturdy’s trafficing manoeuvre (Lazer, 1971). 2.1.1Core infamys and guile Diageo has fascinated utilityousness of the infamy-dominated kind of the global motives traffic and invested heavily in mergers, acquisitions and alliances to enunciate a potent infamy portfolio, chiefly their so-called “Global Priority Brands”. Reward infamys such as Smirnoff Vodka, Johnnie Walker, Captain Morgan’s Rum and Baileys Irish Cream Liqueur are trafficed and situationed individually, and in 2009 contributed to 58% of sum quantity manufactured, bringing in balance ?5000m to the posse balance the year. In circumstance Diageo’s top infamys recital for 8 of the top 20 reward motives infamys in the universe. These requisite infamys are generally exhibited as consistardised, reward consequences in all the posse’s target geographical precipitations owing their packaging and show are polite-behaved-behaved-behaved recognised in sundry countries as enacting proud sort, reducing the deficiency for workation and increasing economies of lamina (Diageo website, 2011) .[3] Bacardi began as a sole infamy posse, rendezvoused on situationing and vending its own infamy of reward rum through inhanging companies servicing irreferring-to regions opposite the sphere. However, changing economic provisions averaget reorganisation into a sole inhanging existence, superveneed by a merger delay Martini & Rossi and the acquisitions of Dewar, Bombay and most new-fangledly, Grey Goose. Bacardi today situations its consequences in the proud-end member of the traffic, and love Diageo, they endure on the potent infamy recollection and perceived sort of their consequences to determine sales (Bacardi website). According to Bacardi, its portfolio consists of six nucleus infamys: Bacardi Rum, House of Dewar’s, Bombay & Bombay Sapphire Gin, Martini & Rossi and Cazadores tequila. These consequences are sold universewide and are consistardised twain in stipulations of the beverage and in stipulations of the packaging[4]. Bacardi’s good-fortune delay these infamys is attributed to their equable avenue to trafficing unobservant of wnear their target customers are. By consistardising the packaging of their consequences opposite all regions, they enjoy managed to sculpture the consequence conception, chiefly the “bat” logo (Figure 1, Appendix), on consumer minds as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as achieving economies of lamina elevatebalance other efficiencies (Cisnal et al, 2006). The lean of rewardisation is to-boot harmonious in Pernod Ricard’s manoeuvre who see it as a appbreed manoeuvre cheapd on rallying infamy consisting and creating elevate uptraffic categories. Today, the posse see their reward infamys as a repartee to the consumer’s hanker-for to “absorb near, but absorb amend”. In kind, they underneathneathconsist that the encouragement intermediate and remarkable arrangees, chiefly in emerging economies, are minute for infamys that transfer arcollocate and consisting. Their global icons Absolut and Chivas Regal are amongst the top ten motives in the universe, whilst their strategic motives infamys love Jameson, Beefeater and Malibu and are all senior players in their not-absolute categories (PR Press Kit, 2011). Howalways Pernod Ricard has invested considerably, possibly elevate than Diageo and Bacardi, in enunciateing and trafficing twain their proud-end Prestige collocate of consequences, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as a collocate of strategic persomal infamys which repeatedly guide the traffics they subserve. The preceding includes interpolitically recognised, aware whiskeys love Glenlivet and Royal Salute, and to-boot polite-behaved-behaved-public champagne infamys love Mumm and Perrier-Jouet. The death is included of infamys love Clan Cambell (France) and Montilla (Brazil) which are the requisite infamys of their predicament in their not-absolute countries (Pernod Ricard website). Thus to a elevate space than the other two motives discussed, Pernod, although consistardising their strategic reward and global infamys, enjoy invested in varying their portfolio to exhibit a stroll collocate of sort consequences, and in working their exhibiting to collect peacericted infamys to prepare for sure countries or regions, sundry of which are traffic guideers. 2.1.2.Innovation Diageo self-exaltation themselves in existence innovators and they use the potent infamy repute as a cheap, from which to enunciate their trafficing, sales and furnish functions, to best aid consumer leans and absorbing morality. For issue, Smirnoff vodka has been transformed into contrarys such as Smirnoff Black and Smirnoff Norsk, whilst Captain Morgan Rum has seen varieties such as Captain Morgan Parrot Bay and Captain Morgan Tattoo. Most of these contrarys were imagined to exhibit celebrity new to stout customers and to charm the new period of motive absorbers, sundry of whom preferred flavoured or harmonious varieties of their motives (Diageo website). Furthermore, in repartee to the encouragement calculate of consumers absorbing at settlement in new-fangled dates, Diageo has indemnifyd a collocate of ready-to-subserve cocktails (e.g. Smirnoff Cosmopolitan) and pre-mixed motive and mixer beverages (e.g. Gordon’s Gin & Tonic), predominantly in North American and European traffics. These alterations are increasing in approvedity and in the primary half of 2010, recitaled for 10% of net sales (Diageo Investor Conference, 2010). By far the best issue of Diageo’s good-fortuneful alteration nevertheless, was the enliberal of Smirnoff’s best-selling flavoured alcoholic beverage (FAB), Smirnoff Ice, in 1999. Smirnoff Ice imagined an completely new traffic member as a ready-to-absorb (RTD) contrary in the alcoholic beverage traffic, during its importation at the end of the 20th era. By 2003, Smirnoff Ice had bybygone on to obtain balance a third of the UK FAB traffic, balance 40% of the US traffic and concurrently delay its closest compete Barcardi breezer, a dominating 88.5% of the European traffic, serving Belgium, Greece and Scandinavia as some of their best customers (Band, 2007). Like Diageo, Bacardi too has used their potent repute cheap to imagine contrarys on their nucleus motives such flavoured Bacardi rums, which has been increasingly approved amongst early consumers. Neverthenear near frequently, one of the companies most good-fortuneful alterations has been the FAB Bacardi Breezer, introduced during the flavour fad of the 1990s, which has grown to beconclude an methodic guideer in the RTD predicament elevatebalance Smirnoff Ice, thankfulness to charming early absorbers delay its delicious relish, catchy indicate and colourful packaging (Cisnal et al, 2006). Pernod Ricard’s commitment to alteration has been a key enlargement driver and succored to elevate infamy equity. Besides structure a portfolio of requisite persomal infamys, this commitment is pondered in new-fangled issues such as the importation of Chivas Regal 25 Year Old, an unapproved account which was situationed at the top end of the traffic, fetching closely ?160-180 per bottle. This demonstrates Pernod’s rendezvous on “premiumising” their consequences and associating their infamy indicates delay riches and prestige, as this is a potent lalways for accelerating sales and acquisition enlargement in the hanker run (Pernod website, 2011). 2.2Promotion Promotion is essentially the posse’s manoeuvre to prepare for the traffic despatch arrangement whereby the returner (firm) uses the resources (TV, magazines, radio) to declare a intimation (advertisement, sales endowment) to the receiver (immanent customer), in the vision of landing sales (Lazer, 1971). Alcohol museising is topic to costive WHO governments in the seniority of countries universewide, due to polite-behaved-behaved-methodic links among consumption-kindred injuries and fatalities, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as elevate new-fangled allegations towards the diligence kindred to the targeting of early, underneathneathage consumers by museising their harmonious-tasting, carbonated “alco-pops”. Marketers consequently, enjoy had to conclude up fraught resources by which to promulge their consequences delayout any insinuate of promoting arbitrary, underneathneathage or balance-consumption (IAS, 2010). The sturdys underneathneathneath inducement in this season are methodic global motives motives and cement a sundry methods in promoting their consequences. Consequently we obsubserve at each of the sturdys’ avenuees referring-to to two foremost trafficing tools in the global motives traffic: elevation via merriments and invigoration bailship, and plain TV museising. 2.2.1.Sports & Melody Invigoration Sponsorship Alcohol motives apprehend that officially bailing an relevant merrimenting or invigoration circumstance exhibits opportunities for forcible infamy peril in the resources, chiefly when the circumstance is widely televised. During the summer months when beverage claim is proud, motives ramp up trafficing efforts and attempt proud-budget bailship trades delay interpolitically recognised circumstances in enjoin to breed interpolitical peril and succor their infamys consist out from the competery (Novak, 2004). The bailship trades for senior merrimenting circumstances was dominated by requisite beer infamys in the gone-by (such as Coors, Budweiser and Heineken) but new-fangled dates has seen the emergence of Diageo motive infamys bailing circumstances such as the golf tripnament, Championship at Gleaneagles (Johnnie Walker), motor-racing circumstances such as NASCAR (Crown Royal), the ICC Cricket Universe Cup 2007 and has been a bail of the Team Mclaren F1 car elapsed 2006. Diageo to-boot obsubserve bailship in the melody invigoration diligence, principally through Smirnoff and non-motive infamys such as their Jamaican beer, Red Stripe. Investments in the Smirnoff Melody Center[5], an outdoor performing arts capital in Dallas, saw incongruous proud-profile concerts captivate locate at the venue and imagine a potent familiarity delay Smirnoff and approved refinement. In 2010, Smirnoff enlargeed its Nightexistence Exchange Contrivance which attempts to transform consumer-generated notions on nightexistence experiences in irreferring-to countries into objective circumstances, subtly exploiting the growing integration of gregarious edge refinements. Bacardi capitalised on the easing of government balance merriments bailships as polite-behaved-behaved, and has been a bail of the F1 Ferrari Team elapsed 2006. In 2007, Ferrari to-boot verified up preceding combatant F1 driver Michael Schumacher as a infamy ambassador for the motives posse’s gregarious commission catalogue encircling the merriment (Sport Industry, 2007) More forciblely in April of conclusive year, Bacardi verified a 3-year, very-much remunerative bailship trade delay the Gregarious Basketball Familiarity (NBA). The groundbreaking contract among the two was the primary date one of the foul-mouthed senior combination merriments in the US had verified a motives infamy as a urbane polite-wisher, and according to experts, may act as a catalyst for other merriments at a date when motives infamys enjoy been steadily increasing their nearness in “pro” teams and venues (Sports City, 2010). Bacardi’s ventures into melody bailship are no near impressive: the infamy bailed the 2010 universe trip of the Black Eyed Peas, one of the best vending pop ligaments of all date. According to the trip supporter A.E.G, Bacardi was clarified due to the infamy’s “hanker consisting affinity delay melody”. This stems from Bacardi’s melody confoundment such as bailing sundry festivals and melody circumstances, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as pioneering contrivances such as the primary infamy and ligament union delay polite-behaved-behaved-public sport melody duo Groove Armada. This contrivance empowerd Bacardi to use the ligament, and in-truth melody, as a conduct to liberate infamy intimations in a refinementd environment (UTalk-Marketing, 2009). Pernod Ricard contrastingly has simply very new-fangledly latched on to this lean of encouragement motive infamy bailship in senior merrimenting circumstances. The posse predominantly scenes its bailship arm as a resources to complete and exalt its commitment to urbane gregarious commission[6]. It self-exaltations itself on bailing the arts, cosmicalitarian operation and comprehension, thus promising creativity and entrepreneurship, concerning legend and maintaining senior hanker-term contrivances (Pernod website, 2011). Conclusive year nevertheless, the wine and motives motive verified a trade to bail the 2011 Rugby Universe Cup, one of the capaciousst merrimenting circumstances reaching an estimated parley of 4bn universewide. Pernod’s elevation in the invigoration diligence is referring-toly new-fangled and for the most sunder manufactured through its Malibu Rum infamy. The infamy bailed the reunification trip of the global pop ligament Captivate That, was after the Malibu Melody Awards 2010[7] and most new-fangledly, enlargeed Radio Maliboom Boom, a digital radio occupation transmitting Caribbean melody and consumer videos, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as performances from featured melody guests, universewide (BBC Business News, 2010). 2.2.2.Direct TV museising Over the gone-by stranger of decades, TV has proved to be the most forcible plain museising moderation delay sturdys investing heavily in guileing and implementing museising hostilitiess, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved in securing costly airdate for them to run (Gauder, 2008). Strict WHO and EU synod average costive peacerictions on how alcohol can be promulged, so trafficers must try to converge eye-catching visuals delay a skillful underneathneathlying subject or intimation that succeed cleave delay the customer (IAS, 2010). Diageo’s Smirnoff has embarked diversity of museising hostilitiess, the most new-fangled existence the “Be There” hostilities which exalts Smirnoff bailed edge circumstances opposite the spnear wnear consumers can win tickets through elevations, climaxing in the Nightexistence Exchange Contrivance illustrative previously. Neverthenear Smirnoff’s antecedent hostilities was its capaciousst always (approx. ?5m in the UK) and confoundd capacious cannonade in creating eye-catching and remarkable TV promulgements. The hostilities was public as “Sea” and the muse features the sea dramatically ridding itself of all the sediment deposited in it balance the years (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZrReRZPjD8), bringing to existence the antidote tediousnesss to which Smirnoff goes through to effect its proud sort vodka. It was a shrill good-fortune and had increased vend sales appbreed by encircling ?8m delayin the year (Talking Retail, 2007). The new-fangled Bacardi hostilities public as the “Spirit of Bacardi” attempted to applaud the intensity, optimism and pioneering collocation of Bacardi rum. The muse features a cluster of friends who elevate their own island to imagine a uncommon notify and a commemoration of existence that can be concluded through this “island existencestyle” (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f4ttvygytW4). The poetical kind of these friends ponders the afflatus and pioneering motive of the rum which has contributed to the falsehood of sundry illustrious cocktails (Mojito, Pina Colada, Cuba Libre). In kind, rather love the Smirnoff issue, twain sturdys are trying to transfer the innate benefits and utilityousness that can simply be gained from consuming their consequence: in the instance of Smirnoff it is the vodka itself, clean and salubrious, inasmuch-as Bacardi emphasise the environment in which the consequence is averaget to be consumed, and how the rum moulds you affect. February 2011 saw the indemnify of the lowe?-t trafficable from Chivas Regal’s “Live delay Chivalry “ hostilities (http://bcove.me/7cwcz615), which according to Patrick Venning[8], draws afflatus from the indispensable appraises of novel men and declares a subject-matter of scene that gift to encapsulate the Chivas Regal inheritance. The hostilities emphasises the pleasurable and exuberant kind of the infamy and reinforces consumer perceptions of aware Scotch whisky, one of the sturdy’s nucleus objectives. Interestingly nevertheless, the posse’s capaciousst museising lavish was on their Emmy award-winning Absolut Anthem promulgement (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5O16C1ZLuyI). The underneathneathlying subject near was one of “doing celebrity irproportionately guides to celebrity exceptional”. This was an sensational captivate on the circumstance that some consumers were initially reluctant to absorbing the vodka which was made in Sweden, and well-balanced common criticisms from bars/clubs universewide due to bartenders struggling delay the bottle figure (Dodd, 2010). Despite this, the trafficers confoundd managed to transform the consequences issues into peacerictedities that defined its uncommonness and made it consist out from the peace. It was the notion that existence irreferring-to is not necessarily a bad fiction, and trafficers aimed to recite that to the vodka on a slight smooth, but elevate philosophically kindred to other issues such as anti-war protests and correspondent gay rights for issue (www.absolut.com). 3. Conclusion The global motives traffic is suhope aged, saturated and competitive making opportunities for enlargement, scant. In enjoin to conclude increased sales quantity, motives enjoy to either pull traffic divide far from competitors or open the balanceall bigness of the traffic. In circumstance the top players enjoy had to breed trafficing lavish in a bid to irrelativeiate their consequences from those of competitors, obsubserve competitive utilityousness and charm consumer notice via resources that is already very-much cluttered (Novak, 2004). The encouragement intermediate arcollocate in patent clear and emerging nations, chiefly on the tail of the new-fangled global recession, are aware to learn riches and do amend, as this is an innate cosmical diagnosis. The requisite sturdys in the global traffic hope heavily on infamy recollection and perceived consequence sort as a senior vending subject-matter, chiefly for their nucleus infamys. This is suhope the instance for Diageo and Bacardi who lean to exhibit a consistardised reward consequence in the seniority of precipitations albeit delay some contrarys and workation give. Pernod Ricard to-boot relies on its global icons but has demonstrated a superior confoundment in supple a collocate of worked infamys to good-fortunefully prepare for encouragement emerging traffics that regive the coming of the diligence (Pernod Website, 2011). Morebalance in elevation, Diageo and Bacardi look to supervene alove trafficing patterns that confound potent blight delay approved merriments and invigoration refinement through bailship, and proud-budget museising hostilitiess to exalt the nucleus diagnosiss of their infamys’ conceptions which they enjoy built up balance sundry years. Pernod’s interoperation delay approved refinement is a referring-toly elevate new-fangled lion but they enjoy breedd infamy equity balance the years (and observeed competitiveness) by structure a diverse motives portfolio and by trafficing their consequences as undulating property, interchangeable delay proud sort and consisting. 4. References Absolut Vodka Official Website: absolut.com Anonymous, 2007, “Diageo GB Launches Largest Always Smirnoff Advertising Campaign”, Talking Vend season, http://www.talkingretail.com/products/drinks-news/diageo-great-britain-launches-largest-ever-smirnoff-advertising-campaign Anonymous, 2007, “Schumacher to beconclude Bacardi Ambassador”, Sports Diligence Group, http://www.sportindustry.biz/news/view/1154/schumacher-to-become-bacardi-ambassador Anonymous, 2009, “How Bacardi’s Groove Turned the Melody Diligence on Its Head”, UTalk Marketing season 13231, http://www.utalkmarketing.com/Pages/Article.aspx?ArticleID=13231 Anonymous, 2010, “NBA signs ground-breaking Bacardi Deal”, Sports City, http://www.sportindustry.biz/news/view/1154/schumacher-to-become-bacardi-ambassador Anonymous, 2010, “Pernod Ricard in Marketing Push for Higher Absorb Sales”, BBC Business News, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-11162491 Bacardi Official Website: www.bacardi.com Band, J., 2007, “The European Beer, Cider and FABs Traffic to 2007”, datamonitor.com Cisnal, L., Becerik, G., Moser, K. & Skopal, J., 2006, “Global Manoeuvre Report: Bacardi & Co. Ltd”, KFK Interpolitical Marketing, http://www.ag-bwz.at/unterlagen/upload/kurs85/IM%202_Report_Bacardi.pdf Diageo Official Website: diageo.com Diageo Investor Conference, 2010, http://www.diageo.com/Lists/Resources/Attachments/581/PSW%20Introduction%20-%20FINAL.pdf Dodd, C. 2010, “Pernod Ricard Announces Biggest Ad Lavish Yet for Absolut” The Publican Season 67927, http://www.thepublican.com/story.asp?storycode=67927 Gauder, B., 2008, “Diageo: Business Summary”, Posse Analysis Files, The Patient Investor, http://web.me.com/briangaudet/ThePatientInvestor/Company_Analysis_Examples_files/DEO.pdf Institute of Alcohol Studies, 2010, “Alcohol and Advertising Factsheet”, http://www.ias.org.uk/resources/factsheets/advertising.pdf Impact Databank Global Drinks Traffic Rescene and Forecast: 2009 Edition Intergregarious Center for Alcohol Policies, 2006, “The Structure of the Beverage Alcohol Industry”, ICAP fame. Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G., 2004, “Principles of Marketing: 10th Edition”, Remarkable Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education. Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G., 2006, “Marketing: An Introduction”, Prentice Hall. Lazer, W., 1971, “Marketing Management: A System’s Perspective”, New York, John Wiley & Sons. Novak, J., 2004, “Alcohol Elevation & The Marketing Industry: Trends, Tactics and Public Health”, Familiarity to Reduce Alcohol Elevation in Ontario (ARAPO) Pernod Ricard Official Website: pernod-ricard.com Pernod Ricard Press Kit, February 2011, http://www.pernod-ricard.com/medias/News/pdf/Dossiersdepresse/DP_FEBRUARY_2011_eng.pdf Popp, J., 2005, “Bacardi’s Breakout Year”, Beverage Industry, http://www.bevindustry.com/content.php?s=BI/2005/02&p=10 Proctor, T., 2000, “Strategic Marketing: An Introduction”, Routledge Publishers. Youtube videos: Smirnoff “Sea”; Bacardi “Spirit of Bacardi”; Absolut “Absolut Manifesto/Anthem” youtube.com Zorova, N., Tantilova, M., Tokcan, E. & Ladino, F., 2010, “Diageo: Analysis of Sustainable Competitive Advantage”, http://www.scribd.com/doc/48733874/Diageo-Final-report 5. Appendix Figure 1: Bacardi Bat logo