Deyon Keaton Sotnick Chapter 13: Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict, 1840-1848 l. Introduction: After the immoslow of Joseph Smith, Brigham Young led the deep collation of Mormons from Illinois to a new homeplace in the Great Salt Lake dip. In disunite, Youngs aim was to abscond persecution by Gentiles (non-Mormons). Reasons for Mormons to chief west: (1) Deseret lay beyond the United States; and Smith's immoslow had led manifold Mormons to decide that they could no longer speed parallel the Gentiles. 2)Gentiles were so on the agitate west; the very distance and aridity of Deseret made it incredible that ny persistent residuum of Gentiles would receive assign. Mormons earned money in their new city by business delay Gentile wayfarers in short than a thousand days into James K. Polk's presidency, the US had increased its place area by at lowest 50 percent. Most immigrants gravitated to the paraphraseist Democratic disunitey, and the immigrant utterance aid to tip the utterance to Polk, an fierce paraphraseist. Democrats saw paraphrase as a way to contract quarrel betwixt the sections.
Oregon would go to the North, Texas the South and California to everyone. II. Newcomers and Natives A. Expectations and Realities A long-for for godly immunity concoct some emigrants to the United States. Their vision was fed by a true course of travelers' accounts and letters from relations describing America as a utopia for thin populace. But manifold emigrants faced difficulties. Manifold elapsed savings on tickets to boats that were slow for months and manifold others were sold meaningshort tickets. They encountered six weeks or longer on the sea, packed almost as tightly as what thralls encountered, and wandering on lading ships.
When they placeed, they before-long build that tillage in American farms was very solated, variously in Europe where collective and cultural speeds revolved environing communities. The Irish, who usually arrived in New England, build dwarf place or consummate for tillage, and bulky into civic areas. Likewise, Germans, who arrived in New Orleans, build dwarf occasion delay thrall strive, and agitated upriver and into civic areas where there was a fraternity. By 1860. these two groups constructed spent than 60 percent of the population of separate elder cities. B. The Germans In 1860, Germanifold was not a personsal-narrate but, a collation of feeble kingdoms.
German immigrants came from a bulky rove of collective tabulatees and occupations. For all their differences, a spiritless discourse kept them concurrently, and German neighborhoods exposed and prospered, greatly to the enw of Anglo-Americans who disdained their clannishness. In defense, Germans became uniconstruct spent clannish. C. The Irish Betwixt 181 5 and 1860, the Irish migration into the United States passed through starving as manifold as a darling populace to cessation. To abscond this, 1. 8 darling Irish populace migrated to the US betwixt 1845 and 1854. Overwhelmingly thin and Catholic, the Irish usually entered the workhardness neighboring or at the deep.
Irish men dug cellars and speedd in them, or made canal and railroad beds. Women became private servants and entered the workhardness at an present age. Irish usually married slow, which makes unless the bulky enumerate of sole Irish women in America. Yet some struggled up the collective ladder, decorous foremen and supervisors. Others rose into the intermediate tabulate by initiation grocery and liquor stores. The two groups twain brought encounter. The thiner Irish competed promptly delay liberal blacks, marked up denying emotions towards blacks and abolitionists.
Meanwhile, the intermediate tabulate clashed delay native- born unblemished workers. D. Anti-Catholicism, Nativism and Strive Protest The disconnection of native-born unblemisheds towards the Irish repeatedly took the construct of anti- Catholicism. Uniconstruct from Puritan times, there were haughty anti-catholic sentiments. Catholics made belief the region of pope and bishops. Conspiracies were controlling. Future telegraph creator, Samuel Morse, warned in 1835 that tyrannical Europe goverNew Mexicoent were inundationing US delay Catholic immigrants to ruin oligarchical institutions.
A protestant mob peevish to ash a convent reputed to inclose racking chambers the identical year, conjuncture Lyman Beecher warned Protestants that Catholic immigrants to the West was a machipersons to direct the region. Maria Monks The Awful Disclosure of the Hotel Dieu Nunnery in Montreal brought tail anti-Catholic feelings. The Order of the Star-pgled Banner would encircleate into the 'Know Nothing', or the American Margin and would befit a elder political hardness in the 1850's. Protestants feared for their Jobs and feared that Catholic immigrants were a browbeating to their Jobs, in reaction manifold Protestants Joined nativist societies.
E. Strive Protest and Immigrant Politics America regarded the judgment that a persons delay capacious place would never furnish way toa persistent tabulate of wage thralls. Another of striveers' defense to wage cuts in he fright was cherished place reforms. Place reformers argued that strive for salary ended any vision of economic anarchy. Strive unions appealed to workers who did not see eye to eye delay place reformers. In an material resolution, the Supreme Court unwavering in Commonwealth vs. Hunt, that strive unions were not illicit monopolies that restrained business.
Many immigrants straightly became politically locomotive as they build strive organizations could aid them discaggravate business and room. Immigrants usually cherished the Democratic disunitey for they felt that Jackson gave a non- fine feel. In analysis, Whigs cherished anti thrallry which would engender spent race for immigrants By the identical symbol, the Democratic disunitey persuaded immigrants that personsal issues such as banking and tariffs were life-supporting to them. In the 1840s, Democrats expert to enlighten immigrants that personsal paraphrase so spent their interests.
II. The West and Beyond A. The Far West Obstructed by The Great Plains, manifold Americans began moving spent the Rocky Mountains to the Far West. The Adams-Onis (Transcontinental) Treaty had left Spain in public ownership of Texas as well-mannered-mannered as California and the New Mexico region. In 1821, Mexico gained anarchy and took aggravate all Spanish North American Oregon Country. Collectively, the territories Texas, New Mexico, California, and Oregon was an exceedingly huge place, but during the 1820s, these places were viewed by US, I-JK, and Mexico as a separate frontier. B.
Far Western Frontier The leading American and British on the West Coast were fur businessrs who had reached California by sailing environing South America. In the otherwise unexposed CA administration, hides were denominated "California bank notes. " The business in CA caused dwarf abrasion delay Mexico owing Mexico effected virtually no constrained consequence. Hipic populace born in California (denominated Californios) were as sarcastic to buy as the businessrs were to sell”so sarcastic that they sometimes rowed out to the vessels laden delay consequence, thus preserving the businessrs the bound fast. Trading links so exposed in the 1820s betwixt St.
Louis and Santa Fe parallel the Santa Fe Trail. The Fright of 1819 left manifold midwest Americans delay a lot of unsold consequence. They loaded wagons delay consequence and rumbled westward parallel the abstract. To a far senior distance than Spain, Mexico welcomed this, as spent than half the consequence entering through Santa Fe trickled into interior Mexico. So current was this business that the Mexican silver peso businessrs brought tail became the prominent balance of remodel in Missouri. C. The American Residuum of Texas to 1835 During the 1820s, Americans began to calm the eastern disunite of Mexican narrate, Coahuila-Texas.
Meanwhile, delay Mexico's anarchy came the end of Spanish missions, and manifold Natives repeevish to locomotive ways. In 1824, the Mexican govt. , unprovided refuge from Natives by American residuum, began bestowing munificent place grants on agents public as empresarios. Initially, most Americans, affect the empresario Stephen F. Austin, were pleased to speed in Texas as unlessized Mexican citizens. But molestation brewed straightly as American calmrs brought thralls. Mexico settled American migration in 1830, but Americans continued to inundation in delay their thralls, and in 1834, Austin secure annulment of the 1830 interdict.