The Relationship between Degree of Bilingualism and Cognitive Ability

The Kindred Betwixt Position of Bilingualism and Apprehensive Ability: A Critical Yarn and Some New Longitudinal Grounds 320 HAKUTA AND DIAZ ! Kenji Hakuta Yale University ! I Rafael M. Diaz University of N e w Mexlco II I ate bilingual saniples to a n intervenience such that the prototype of posterior studies o n bilingualism became collocate unifomitys of equalized bilinguals 10 monolingual counterparts mateed o n divert mutables. Second, the products served to sfrequently-again-and-anew cornnimerely held frights encircling the products of bilingual teaching. amely, that it would consequence retarded. diseased educated, anomie people extraneously gale to either ethnolinguistic collocate and disqualified of functioning in either vernacular (Tucker & d’Anglejan, 1971). Bilingual teaching would not imagine, the deduce planatic, a political or apprehensive Frankenstein. In this article, we afford a weak reconsideration of discovery antecedent to Peal a n d Lambert’s deduce and advance fresh studies o n bilingualism and rumor (for a n precedent reconsideration succeeding a conjuncture a linguistic convergence, see Lindholm, 1980; for a n remote and elaboadmonish reconsideration of the primary 6 decades of discovery, see Diaz, 1983).In the heeder o f t h e reconsideration. we summit out twain presumptive and modeologica~ weaknesses inbred in the regular bilingual-monolingual unifomity. In attention, we presabiding the scantity o f hankeritudinal investigations that allot for the duty of sayments encircling the cause-consequence communitys betwixt bilingualism and apprehensive abilities. Then, we ment proemial products from our own deduce. which endeavors to emend for these weaknesses. We infer succeeding a conjuncture some presumptive speculations touching the creation of the kindred betwixt bilingualism and idea. . ! I I I ! . . . I . I . . 1. i 1 !In 1962, Elizabeth Peal and Wallace Lambert of McGill University published a disquisition entitled “The Community of Bilingualism to Intelligence. ”The discovery, conducted in Montexistent succeeding a conjuncture 10-year-old product, paralleld the act of monolinguals t o that of bilingual, French/English-symbolical matters on a abnormity of exemplar cupels of rumor. In disunifomity to antecedent discovery on bilingualism and rumor, Peal and Lambert (1962) discovered that tdevisee bilingual contingency paradeed preferpotent act o n gauges of parole rumor and o n nonparole cupels “involving concept-erection o r sortic flexibility Ip. 41. ” What incongruousiated the deduce from its ancestral kinsmen was the heed succeeding a conjuncture which Peal and Lambert exercised govern equalize contingency excerption. They mix a eminence betwixt penny, “balanced bilinguals” who are conversant in twain tdevisee primary (11) and excite vernacular (L2) and “pseudo-bilinguals” who, for manifold reasons, suffer not yet attained agedivert abilities in tdevisee excite vernacular. According to Peal and Lambert(l962): “The pseudo-bilingual understands one vernacular plenteous rectify than the other, and does not use his excite vernacular in message.T h e penny (or equalized) bilingual masters twain at a n bestow age and has attachment succeeding a conjuncture twain as media of message [p. 61. ” Into tdevisee contingency of bilinguals, unmixedly those deduceed “balanced” were admitted. Peal and Lambert’s deduce had existent impression on two fronts. First, it lofty the sensation of discoveryers on the gist of primeing appropri- ! THE FIRST 4 DECADES OF RESEARCH Metaphysical studies of the community betwixt bilingualism and apprehensive abilities began in the bestow 1920s out of force lofty by the flowering of psychometric cupels o f rumor.The force was that bilingual product would buttress from some linguistic disadvantages, which could, in deflect, bar [air duty o f tdevisee intellectual abilities and virtual. The existentity that the distance of rumor is heavily relying on parole abilities made psycholog,ists and educators deeply forceed (and rightabundantly so! ) encircling the hardness o f such cupels for bilingual product. As expected, the eldership of studies antecedent to Peal and Lambert’s (1962) deduce base that bilinguals were linguistically blemished in unifomity to tdevisee monolingual counterparts. Among other romances, bilinguals were paraden t o suffer blemished junction (Carrow, 1957). inferior exemplars in written conformation, advance traditional mistakes (Harris, 1948; Saer, 1924). and a deduceably cheap glossary (Barke & Williams, 1938; Grabo, 1931; Saer, 1924). Theconsistcnt judgment was that bilinguals buttressed from a so-denominated “vernacular agencyicap” (see reconsideration5 b i Arsenian. 1937; Darcy, 1953, 1963; Macnamara, 1966). Unfortunately, accordant judgments encircling bi1inguals’“lanpuagc agencyicap” led too promptly to statcincnts touching the introdden elfccts of bilingualism ! , I . . : I ! . . , , I I I I j I ’ I I ’, .. :_:. ;::. : ’. . :. . , : I , , . ,- . . . . .... , . . . ... . , . , . . . ... . . . ~ . -. .. ,.. .. , . . > _ . .. ... 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 321 322 HAKUTA AND OlAZ . rather than to a influencey topicing of the hardness of psychometric cupelsof rumor for this population. Negative, and rather acrimonious, sayments condemning bilingualism as a political harass (Epstein, 1905) or as “a burden unsupposing of chaste custom” (Yoshioka, 1929) were spirithither in the bestow deduce. In before-long, the gauged vernacular agencyicap of bilinguals was solveed as a linguistic laziness that deeply monstrous product’s intellectual fruit and academic act up to the academy years (Saer, 1940). The eldership of bestow studies in the area, still, buttressed from a spacious file of modeological gists, and as a product, most popular investigatorsin the arena sentiment the judgments of bestow studies as abundantly unfounded (see Cummins, 1976). A cheerful enumeadmonish of bestow studies, for in, failed to govern for collocate eminences in socioeconomic standing betwixt bilingual and monolingual contingencys.As bestow as 1930, McCarthy summited out that bilingualism in the US was influenceyly confounded succeeding a conjuncture low socioeconomic standing. She base that advance than half of the bilingual instruct product could be collocateified as congenial t o families from the renewed drudge occupational collocate. Concurrently the aenjoy threads, Fukuda (1925) alerted discoveryers to the existentity that lofty-scoring English-symbolical matters were for-the-most-part-among in the occupational and executive collocatees; he mented a corcommunity of 3 3 betwixt the Whiltier (socioeconomic) Lamina and the Binet IQ in his contingency.Nevertheless, antecedent to the bestow 1960s. most studies investigating the property of bilingualism on product’s rumor did not admit into stateation collocate eminences in socioeconomic standing. A excite senior modeological daub of bestow studies is that it was constantly-again-and-anew debatpotent whether the “bilingual” matters were in existentity copious in twain vernaculars. Brunner (l929), for in, productive that product’s bilingualism would be estimated by the alienness of tdevisee causes.Brunner disconnectedd his bilingual contingency into three categories: (1) twain causes born in this country; (2) one cause born hither and the other aloof; and (3) twain causes born aloof. The sect was singly productive to state manifold positions of product’s bilingualism. In other studies, the contingency’s bilingualism was assessed through source names or equal settle of resldence (see Darcy, 1953, for a reconsideration). As bestow investigators suffer constantly-again-and-anew recurrent, it is unuspotent to discaggravate whether the bilingual matters of numerous studies were verily bilingual or reasonpotent monolingual of a adolescence vernacular. Toward the end of the 1950s, discovery o n the property of bilingualism paradeed the forthcoming accordant judgments. Monolinguals executed indicatively preferpotent than bilinguals on gauges of parole rumor. On gauges of nonparole power, some studies paradeed that monolinguals were to-boot at an custom, but collocate eminences on this mutpotent were not accordant athwart studies. However, owing of the influencey modeological daubs reasonpotent mentioned, none of the products, equal if they were statistically indicative in either adjust, can be abundantly solveed.Peal and Lambert’s (1962) deduce, de- scribed weakly in the prelude, took tramps to rally the excerption O f penny, equalized bilinguals. In attention, it recruited sagacity from antecedent studies in governling for socioeconomic plane. ! PEAL AND LAMBERT (1962): THE PUNCTUATION POINT IN RESEARCH - I Twain bilingual and monolingual contingencys for the Peal and Lambert deduce were clarified from the aenjoy instruct plan in Montreal. All I0-year-old product in the plan were middle in the primal screening by foul-mouthed gauges, the composite of which was used to enumeadmonish whether the offshoot should be deduceed monolingual or equalized bilingual. The gauges were: ( I ) the associatering-to calculate of articulation affordd in a adregular community job in LI and L2; (2) the associatering-to calculate of articulation in LI and L2 exposeed in a passage of letters; (3) the calculate of articulation reprevalent in L2 (English) from a subset clarified from the Peabody Delineate Glossary Test; and (4) intellectual self-ratings& power in sortical, sense, lection, and despatches in L2.Children who waste in the extremes of these laminas were enumerated to be monolingual or equalized bilingual. The definite contingency consisted of 75 monolinguals and 89 bilinguals; all product were bringed a mitigated account of the LavoieLarendeau Collocate Cupel of Open Rumor (Lavoie & Laurendeau, 1960). lhe Raven’s Coloured Alterpotent Matrices (Raven, 1956; Raven, Court, & Raven. 1976). and a French account of clarified subtests of the Thurstone Primary Intellectual Abilities Cupel (Thurstone & Thurstone, 1954). Contrary to the judgments of precedent studies, the products of the Peal and Lamberi deduce paradeed that bilinguals executed indicatively rectify than monolinguals o n most of the apprehensive cupels and subtests, equal when collocate eminences in sex, age. and socioeconomic standing were divertly governled. Bilingual product executed indicatively preferpotent than monolinguals on cupels of twain parole and nonparole abilities; the bilinguals’ preferableity in nonparole cupels was advance clbestow conspicuous in those subtests that required intellectual production and reorganization of visual stimuli, rather than unmixed perceptual abilities.A existentityor decomposition of cupel chargess confused that bilinguals were preferpotent to monolinguals in concept erection and in jobs that required a fixed intellectual or sortic flexibility. Overall, bilinguals were base to suffer a advance diversified exemplar of abilities than tdevisee monolingual peers. . Peal and Lambert’s (1962) judgments must be deduceed succeeding a conjuncture a fixed position of foresight, still. First, as Macnamara (1966) has summited out, the carriage of matter excerption capforce suffer introduced a harm in predilection of the bilingual contingency.Peal and Lambert’s bilingual contingency middle unmixedly product who chargesd aggravateacme a fixed enumerated plane in the English Peabody Delineate Glossary Test, a cupel commmerely used to gauge rumor in monolinguals. I 1 I I I ! , ! i 1 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 323 324 HAKUTA AND OlAZ It is relishly that the rumor of French-Canadian product capforce be rcflected in a gauge of English (the excite vernacular) glossary.Second, the bilingual contingency, on the middle, belonged to a preferpotent pace than the monolingual contingency; possibly the preferableity observed in bilinguals was the product of tdevisee having hankerer scylla to exact teaching. And third, the calculate dispensation of the Raven’s cupel chargess was very incongruous for the two collocates of product; it, was indirectly skewed for bilinguals, forasmuch-as the adverse was penny for monolinguals. In before-long, the apprehensive customs observed in Peal and Lambert’s equalized bilingual contingency could suffer been aggravatejoyed by sundry artipostulates in tdevisee matter excerption prescribes. As Peal and Lambert (1962) admitted: A part-amongicular explication of this [the products] may lie in our mode of choosing the bilingual contingency. Those buttressing from a vernacular agencyicap may unintentionally suffer been eliminated. We endeavored to prime bilinguals who were equalized, that is. together copious in twain vernaculars. However, when the equalize gauges did not bestow a chaste mark of whether or not a bestown offshoot was bilingual, advance influence was resolute to his charges on the English glossary cupels. Thus some bilinguals who capforce be equalized, but whose glossary in English and French capforce be middle, would be omitted from our contingency.The hither clever bilinguals, those who suffer not habitual as great an English glossary, would not be deduceed bilingual ample for our deduce [p. IS]. Nevertheless. Peal and Lambert’s (1962) tentative eminence betwixt bilinguals and pseudobilinguals made a indicative (and plenteous demanded) modeological gift to the arena. Tdevisee eminence has oppressive fresh investigators to prime tdevisee bilingual contingency succeeding a conjuncture elder heed and gauge the contingency’s amplifyed comprehension of the two vernaculars. RECENT STUDIESSince Peal and Lambert (1962). a abnormity of studies suffer been mented in o which monolingual product are paralleld t equalized bilingual product. In most of these studies, equalized bilinguals suffer paraden customs in sundry apprehensive abilities, such as concept erection (Liedtke & Nelson, 1968) and melalinguistic consciousness (Cummins, 1978). In attention, numerous studies propose that equalized bilinguals unfold a elder flexibility than monolinguals in tdevisee act on incongruous apprehensive jobs (Balkan, 1970).Above all, fresh discovery not unmixedly has replicated Peal and Lambert’s explicit judgments touching equalized bilingualism, but to-boot has bestown tentative buttress for linguists’ sayments touching the apprehensive and linguistic customs of eminence a offshoot bilingually. In disunifomity to bestow metaphysical studies of offshoothood bilingualism, peculiar contingency studies by linguists (Leopold, 1939, 1947, 1949a, 1949b; Ronjat, 1913) had inferd that bestow bilingualism was customous to product’s apprehensive and linguistic fruit.In top, Leopold (l96l), fixed on observat ions of his bilingually lofty daughter, proposeed that bilingualism excited an bestow dissociation of the adregular investigate from the adregular omission: “a potent incorrectness of the converge betwixt the phonetic adregular and its omission (p. 3581. ” Furthermore, Leopold postulated a charitpotent despatch betwixt the semantic and apprehensive fruit of bilingual product, namely that the dissociation of investigate and omission leads to an bestow consciousness of the conveniionality of articulation and the arbitrariness of vernacular.This consciousness could excite, in deflect, advance imagehither planes of thinking. Vygotsky (1935/1975) saw the apprehensive customs of bilingualism concurrently the aenjoy threads; in his own articulation (as cited in Cummins, 1976). bilingualism frees the sentiment “from the prison of compact vernacular and phenoniena [p. 341. ” Leopold’s observations suffer been cupeled tentativey by lanco-Worrall (1972) in a singular courteous-designed and governled deduce of English. Afrikaans bilingual product in South Africa. The bilingual contingency consisted of seminary instruct product who had been lofty in a one idiosyncratic-one vernacular environment. imilar to the position of Leopold’s daughter Hildegard. The contingency’s position of bilingualism was enumerated by sundry gauges, including elaboadmonish interviews succeeding a conjuncture causes and groundmistresss as courteous as a trodden cupel of the product’s glossary in twain vernaculars. Two aenjoy monolingual contingencys, one English and one Afrikaans. were middle in the deduce. in a primary proof, product were bringed a semantic-phonetic inclinations cupel. The cupel consisted of prospect sets of three articulation each. A regular set contained the articulation cup, con, and har.Children were asked topics such as: “Which adregular is advance relish cup, can or hal? ”Choosing the adregular can or /tal confused the offshoot’s phonetic inclination or semantic inclination, appertainingly, in analyzing adregular alikeities. The part-amongs to parallel articulation on the plea of a semantic size is sentimented as advance tardy fruitally than comparing articulation concurrently a phonetic size. The products of this proof paradeed not unmixedly that semantic inclinations growthd succeeding a conjuncture age, but to-boot that bilinguals outranked monolinguals in choosing articulation concurrently a semantic rather than a phonetic size.As lancoWorrall(l972) mented: “of the slipish 4-6 year old bilinguals, 54% accordantly chose to solve unifomity $betwixt articulation in provisions of the semantic size. Of the unilingual collocates of the aenjoy age, not one Afrikaans logician and unmixedly one English logician paradeed aenjoy excellent demeanor (p. l3YSl. ” lanco-Worrall inferd that bilingual product lofty in a one idiosyncratic-one vernacular environment thrust a distance of senlatitic fruit 2-3 years precedent than monolingual product. . . ’ ’ . 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 325 326 HAKUTA AND DlAZ &In a excite proof, using Vygotsky’s (1962) interviewing techniques, lanco-Worrall (1972) asked her matters to teach the names of incongruous romances (e. g. , why is a dog denominated “dog”? ). She to-boot asked product whether or not the names of romances could be arbitrarily interchangeable. Children’s counterparts to the primary topic were assigned to incongruous categories such as calculpotent attributes, professional attributes, political cabinet, and so forth. The products of this excite proof paradeed no not spurious eminences betwixt bilingual and monolingual product in the types of explications offered.For the excite topic, still, the eminences predilectioned the bilingual product; bilinguals replied that names of objects could in power be modifiable, forasmuch-as the adverse was penny for monolingual product. Lindholm (1980) ments a deduce by Sandoval (1976) in which a counterpart-among of lanco-Worrall’s products was endeavored succeeding a conjuncture a Spanish/Enlish. contingency of kindergartners and third pacers. Although thither was a manage predilectioning the bilinguals, it did not thrust statistical omission. However, it is not chaste whether the bilingual matters were verily equalized or singly enrolled in bilingual instructs. More freshly, Bain and Yu (1980) investigated the apprehensive consequences of eminence product according to Ronjat’s (1913) one idiosyncratic-one vernacular power. Bain and Yu gathered German-French. English-French, and Chinese-English bilinguals succeeding a conjuncture monolinguals from the appertaining vernaculars in three incongruous geographical dregss. The relying apprehensive mutables forceed product’s amplifying consciousness of the functions of vernacular as postulated by Luria and criticized in jobs such as the power to supervene a set of increasingly deep adjusts in hide-and-investigate positions.In top, Bain and Yu hypothesized that bilingualism would excite the use of vernacular as a self-directive cat's-paw in apprehensive jobs. Using a mitigated account of Luria’s (1961) experiintellectual prescribes, the products paradeed that, at encircling age 4, product lofty bilingually in one idiosyncratic-one vernacular environment were rectify potent to use twain equalizet and cmanifest vernacular as a conduct and govern in tdevisee apprehensive functioning. The grounds to-boot predilectioned slipisher bilingual product, but this manage failed to thrust statistical omission. Advance greatly, the judgments were accordant athwart incongruous vernacular collocates and geographical positions.Several investigators suffer explored the property of bilingualism on the fruit of metalinguistic consciousness. Metalinguistic consciousness associates to the power to dissect linguistic output externally; that is, according to Cummins (1978). “to contemplate of vernacular rather than lhrough it to the calculated omission [p. 1271. ’’ Indeed, as product amplify, they befit advance cappotent of contemplateing at vernacular as an external set of governments, as an external cat's-paw for message. Owing bilingualism induces an bestow dissociation of adregular and associateent, it is relishly that bilingual product to-boot amplify an bestow part-amongs to convergence on ‘ , and dissect the structural properties of vernacular. Vygotsky( 1935/1962)suggested that, owing bilinguals could apexed the aenjoy idea in incongruous. vernaculars, a bilingual offshoot would manage to“see his vernacular as one top plan incompact numerous, to omission its phenomena undet advance open categories, and this leads to an consciousness of his linguistic operations [ 1962, p. I IO]. ” Advance freshly, Ben-Zeev (I 977b) hypothesized that bilinguals dtvelop an analytic diplomacy internal vernacular in adregular to battle interlocution betwixt tdevisee t w o vernaculars.Lambert and Tucker (1972) renowned that product in the St. Lambert bilingual proof betrothed in some manage of “contrastive linguistics” by comparing alikeities and eminences betwixt tdevisee two vernaculars. Cunmins (1978) investigated the metalinguistic fruit of third- and sixth-pace Irish-English bilinguals. Product in the contingency came from comes whither twain Irish and English were traditional; all product ordinary exact instruct command in Irish. An divert monolingual unifomity collocate was clarified that was equiponderant to the bilingual‘collocate on gauges of IQ and socioeconomic standing.A primary job investigated product’s consciousness of the arbitrariness of vernacular. Aenjoy to the gauge used by lancoWorrall(1972). product were asked whether names of objects could be interchangeable; they were then asked to teach or self-possessedify tdevisee counterparts. The products confused that, at twain third- and sixth-pace planes, bilinguals paradeed a elder consciousness of the aggravatebearing ‘creation of linguistic allusion. In a excite job, product were bestowed succeeding a conjuncture sundry destructive and tautological dooms encircling some poker chips that were either discernible or unrecognized. The dooms multitudinous in two attentional sizes: penny versus spurious and tentative versus nonempirical. According to Cummins (1978), nontentative sayments associate to dooms that “are penny or spurious by cheerfulness of tdevisee linguistic construct rather than deriving tdevisee truthfulness appraise from any extralinguistic say of affairs [p. 129j. ” The job was clarified as a gauge of metalinguistic consciousness owing antecedent discoveryers had paraden that, in adregular to evaluate contradictions and tautologies emendly, it is indispenscogent to criticize vernacular in,an external carriage.Although the act on this evaluation job was not chaste-cut in predilection of the bilinguals, sixth-pace bilingual product paradeed a noticecogent preferableity in emendly evaluating unrecognized nontentative dooms. But Cummins (1978) notes that the monolinguals “analyzed linguistic input hither closely, life advance resigned to bestow the obvious‘can’t rehearse’ counterpart-among to the unrecognized nontentative items [p. 1331. ” In a excite proof succeeding a conjuncture equalized Ukranian-English bilinguals, Cumniins (1978) investigated product’s metalinguistic consciousness usiiig a spacious abnormity of gauges, including decomposition of dubious dooms and a collocate inclusion job.Contrary to antecedent judgments, the bilinguals in this deduce did not parade customs on the Seniantic-Phonetic Inclination Cupel or on an arbitrariness of vernacular rask. However, Cummins (1978) ments that “the products of the Collocate Inclusion and Ambiguities jobs are accordant succeeding a conjuncture previ- iI - I I I !! ! .. . .i. ,’) < ‘I .. ’ , , . .>: . ,,,,:’ . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. . , , , . io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 327 328 HAKUTA AND DlAZ ous judgments in that they propose that bilingualism excites an analytic orientation t o linguistic input [p. 1351. In the studies that suffer been vivid, bilinguals exceeded monolinguals in a spacious file of linguistic and melalinguistic abilities. Bilinguals paradeed a elder part-amongs to dissect the unifomity of articulation concurrently semantic rather than vocal sizes, a elder use of vernacular as a self-directing cat's-paw in apprehensive jobs, and a elder equalizeall consciousness of the cabinetal creation of articulation and vernacular. Also, in a incongruous deduce (Feldman & Shen, 1971). bilingual 5-year-olds were rectify than tdevisee monolingual peers at relabeling objects and apexeding communitys betwixt objects in plain dooms.This consciousness or flexibility succeeding a conjuncture deference to the use of vernacular seems to state an great role in the apprehensive functioning of bilingual product. In existentity, sundry investigators suffer privilegeed that bilinguals are advance “cognitively flexible” than monolinguals when performing on twain parole and nonparole jobs. Although the belief of apprehensive flexibility has never been adequately teached (see Cummins, 1976)’ it is relishly that bilinguals’ singular use and consciousness of vernacular supplys to a elder flexibility in the production of twain parole and nonparole sorts.One of the most constantly cited studies of bilinguals’ apprehensive flexibility was conducted in Switzerland by Balkan (1970). Balkan bringed sundry cupels of nonparole abilities that purportedly gauged apprehensive flexibility. The bilingual collocate, as expected, executed indicatively preferpotent than the govern monolingual collocate in two of these gauges. One job, Figures Cachees, confused the power to rearclass a perceptual position, aenjoy to the intimate Embedded Figures Test. The other job, Histoires, confused sensitivity to the incongruous omissions of a adjust.Interestingly ample, the explicit property of bilingualsm on these gauges were plenteous stronger for product who had befit bilingual precedently the age of 4. The eminences betwixt monolinguals and product who had befit bilingual at a succeedingcited age were in predilection of the cessation but did not thrust statistical omission. ’ Balkan’s deduce implies, as precedent peculiar contingency studies by linguists had proposeed, that bilingualism capforce suffer the most salutary apprehensive property for those product who gather tdevisee two vernaculars simultaneously. Owing equalized bilinguals suffer two incongruous articulation for most associateents, it s not vast that they parade a elder sensitivity than monolinguals to the relishly incongruous omissions of a solitary adjust, as paraden in the Histoires job. On the other agency, Balkan’s deduce offers no elimination as to how or why bilingualism should supply to a elder power to rearclass and reconstruct perceptual arrays, as paraden in the Figures Cachees job. As fresh discovery proposes, the elimination capforce be in bilinguals’elder consciousness and flexibility succeeding a conjuncture deference to the use of vernacular, as courteous as in tdevisee elder use of twain equalizet and cmanifest oration in the advisering of tdevisee apprehensive functioning (Bain & Yu. 980). Advance manifestation of bilinguals’ so-denominated apprehensive flexibility has been offered by Ben-Zeev’s (1977) deduce succeeding a conjuncture Hebrew-English bilingual product. When paralleld to monolinguals, the bilingual product in the deduce paradeed a noticecogent preferableity in sort supply and parole transerection jobs. The sort supply job confused product’s power to supply articulation in a doom according to the proofer’s commands. In a regular precedence, product were asked to resettle the adregular I succeeding a conjuncture the adregular spughetli.Children were bestown emend chargess when they were potent to say dooms relish“Spaghetti om indifferent,” rather than “Spaghetti iscold” or a aenjoy doom that, although traditionally emend, violated the governments of the recreation. The bilinguals’ preferpotent act on the parole transerection job confused rectify counteraction of shifts in a traditional excitation that is many unintermittently by media of a tape loop. Warren and Warren (1966) suffer mented that when a traditional stiinulus is bestowed in such a way, matters older than 6 years ment hearing numerous shifts in what the taped conversation says.The authors attributed this vision to the fruit of a reorganization arrangement that aids in the cognizance of ongoing oration. The bilingual product in Ben-Zeev’s deduce to-boot outexecuted the monolingual collocate on fixed aspects of a matrix alteration job. Bilinguals were rectify at isolating and manifesting the inferiorlying sizes of the matrix, but no collocate eminences were base on the rearrangement of figures in the matrix. The two unifomity collocates to-boot executed aslight on Raven’s alterpotent matrices.I t should be renowned that the bilinguals in Ben-Zeev’s deduce paradeed apprehensive customs unmixedly on gauges that were troddenly allied to linguistic power and on the parole aspects of the matrix transerection job. Ben-Zeev( 1977) renowned that throughout the deduce bilingual product seemed to vestibule the apprehensive jobs in a verily analytic way. They to-boot seemed advance calm to twain the erection and tops of the jobs bringed, as courteous as advance sentient to feedback from the jobs and the expcrimenter.BenZeev teached these improved abilities in provisions of bilinguals’ confrontation succeeding a conjuncture tdevisee t w o vernaculars. She establishd that, in adregular to dodge linguistic interlocution, bilinguals must amplify a keen consciousness of the structural alikeities and eminences betwixt tdevisee two vernaculars as courteous as a distinctive sensitivity to linguistic feedback from the environment. Supposedly, this advance amplifyed analytic diplomacy internal linguistic erections is transmitted to other erections and exemplars associated succeeding a conjuncture incongruous apprehensive jobs.Ben-Zeev (1977) summarized her products as supervenes: Two strategies characterized the thinking exemplars of the bilinguals in community to parole embodied: attachment to connect erection and attachment to rearrange. I j i I I The exemplars they investigate are principally linguistic, but this carriage to-boot operates succeeding a conjuncture visual exemplars, as in tdevisee attachment at isolating the diniensions of a matrix. . .. , ... . . .. .. < -,,:i , . I, . . ,r,, . ,, l.. r. %-. r, < . .. .: v . %. i:. , . . .L . _ . . .. ,. . 10.BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 329 . 330 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Succeeding a conjuncture visual embodied the spatial reorganizational expertness did not answer, still [p. 1017). In misentry, the creation o r omission of apprehensive flexibility is far from life abundantly inferiorstood; still, the studies reasonpotent reconsiderationed propose that the flexibility renowned in bilinguals could root from vernacular-allied abilities, such as the use of vernacular in advisering apprehensive functioning or an bestow consciousness of the cabinetality and structural properties of vernacular. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF THE ART The fresh studies propose that if one parallels bilinguals who are almost equiponderant in tdevisee abilities in L l and L2 succeeding a conjuncture a monolingual collocate mateed for age, socioeconomic plane, and other suffering mutables and brings a gauge of apprehensive flexibility to twain collocates, the bilinguals earn do rectify. Now, deduce an imaginary (from the omissionsummit of cheerful experiintellectual test) discovery plan. You would start by prelude a stray contingency of people and assigning them strayly to either an experiintellectual collocate or govern collocate, thereby governling for any enhancement misaccept in sampling.The experiintellectual collocate is settled in an environment that fosiers bilingualism, forasmuch-as the govern collocate offal in a monolingual environment. Uninterruptedly the matter has had era to admit consequence (Le. , uninterruptedly the matters in the state suffer befit equalized bilinguals), you bring your relying gauge, making abiding that the idiosyncratic who brings the relying gauge is sightless to whether the matter life cupeled is in the matter or govern state. And, lo and contemplate, you ascertain a eminence in predilection of bilinguals. Under this imaginary position, one can reasonably infer that bilingualism causes apprehensive flexibility, o r whatever apprehensive custom this flexibility stands for. You could to-boot go on to cogitate encircling why this product came encircling and conspenny manifold other experiintellectual states to cupel your hypotheses. In what ways is the imaginary discovery plan unrelish the stipulation inferior which popular studies of bilingualism are conducted? We would summit out at middleest two. First, in the existent globe, thither is n o such romance as stray assignment to a bilingual o r monolingual collocate.Most constantly-again-and-again, bilingualism or monolingualism is enumerated by sociolinguistic existentitys that are, as would be penny of most sociolinguistic existentitys, allied to a spacious file of political mutables. What this existently media is that thither earn be a great enumeadmonish of mutables that incongruousiate the bilingual from the monolingual other than singly that the bilingual speaks two vernaculars and the monolingual one. It is relishly. of heeder, to mate the two collocates succeeding a conjuncture deference to some mutables (e. g. , ethnicity) or to govern them statistically (e. g. , by part-amongicularing out the property’of socioeconomic plane).But at what summit can we be satisfied that all the rele- ’ vant mutables suffer been governled for, such that the eminence betwixt the two collocates can be attributed to the enumeadmonish of vernaculars that the idiosyncratic understands? SO, the unbeliever could establish, “While you suffer governled for u,b,c,d,e, andj. you suffern’t governled for g. ” The excite way in which the imaginary position is unrelish the existentity of the studies is advance modeological and has to d o succeeding a conjuncture the option of a sightless prescribe (a double-sightless is unusable, owing presumably the matters would understand whether they are bilingual or monolingual).In none of the studies reconsiderationed suffer we seen manifestation of endeavors by the discoveryers to frequent the convertibility of the matter sightless to the proofer. If the proofer is keen on the supposition of the deduce and in attention understands whether the matter is a bilingual or a monolingual offshoot, one cannot government out uncalculated experilnenter harm property(Rosentha1, 1976). In manner, it may be perfectly troublesome to endeavor t o guard a sightless prescribe. Bilingual and monolingual product are most constantly-again-and-anew base in incongruous instructs, incongruous neighborhoods, and would probably parade some demeanoral manifestations of tdevisee linguality.It is, still, an consequence that one must suffer in sentiment when solveing the products of studies using the prototype plan. The modeological gists rootming from the existentity of amplifyed bilingual positions manage troublesomey to buttressing tentatively the privilege that bilingualism is associated succeeding a conjuncture elder apprehensive flexibility. One part-amongicular key to twain of these gists can be achieved in a casually used plan of contemplateing at property succeeding a conjuncturein a bilingual contingency (Duncan & DeAvila, 1979).If position of bilingualism can be reliably gauged succeeding a conjuncturein a contingency of product neat bilingual and if this gauge of position can be paraden to be allied to apprehensive flexibility, then one would suffer infer one tramp closer to judgment a chaste kindred betwixt bilingualism and apprehensive flexibility. Using a succeeding a conjunctureinbilingual contingency, it is to-boot relishly to govern for proofer harm. Inasplenteous as the matters could infer from the aenjoy instructs, if the LI and L2 abilities were kept sightless to the proofer, it would minimize harm property.In attention to the beyond gists, thither is the implied but untested sayment encircling adregular of conduciveness. As Peal and Lambert (1962) put it: “one may ask whether the advance clever product, as gauged by nonparole rumor cupels, are the ones who befit bilingual, or whether bilingualism itself has a predilectionpotent consequence on nonparole rumor [p. 131. ” One agencyle on this gist would be through a hankeritudinal deduce in which twain mutables are gauged constantly-again-and-anew equalize era. We are conscious of reasonpotent one siudy (Barik &Swain, 1976) in which hankeritudinal grounds were serviceable.Barik and Swain paralleld 32 low L2 achievers succeeding a conjuncture 32 lofty achievers in a French immersion program in Ottawa equalize a 3-year determination (Grades K-3). They ment that the lofty achievers executed rectify on subtests of analogies and forthcoming parole adjusts equal when primal IQ chargess at Era I were governled. j io. BILINGUALISM A N D COGNITIVEABILITY 331 332 HAKUTA AND OlAZ The deduce we ment in the relics of the article orationes the beyond forces succeeding a conjuncture antecedent studies of the kindred betwixt bilingualism and apprehensive flexibility.We are spirited in assessing the associatering-to abilities in twain LI and L2 of product‘in the carriage of neat bilingual and in forthcoming them on a hankeritudinal plea to enumeadmonish whether position of bilingualism is allied to apprehensive flexibility and to assess the adregular of conduciveness betwixt linguistic and apprehensive mutables. Description of the Project The matters in our deduce are popularly enrolled in collocatees from the Bilingual Teaching Program in the New Haven, Connecticut, national instructs.Children who are enrolled in the program are dominant in Spanish. Importation in the bilingual program for the matters is enumerated principally on the plea of inerection affordd by the causes and by the groundmistresss of the collocaterooms to which they are primally assigned. Product who are mented as life scientificly Spanish-symbolical or chiefly Spanish-symbolical are channeled into the bilingual collocatees, conjuncture those mented as predominantly or scientificly English-symbolical are settled in monolingual, oceanstream collocaterooms.Those product who mentedly use twain vernaculars are advance assessed for prevalence through the Vernacular Duty Battery, and Spanish-dominant product are settled in the bilingual collocaterooms. . The troddenor of the bilingual program estimates that of the 165,000 residents in New Haven, thither are 18,000 Hipics, principally Puerto Ricans. Thither are at bestow roughly 2700 Hipic students in the instruct plan betwixt Grades K-12,of which roughly 45% are in bilingual collocatees; All bilingual collocatees are conducted on a 5050 narration of Spanish and English as vernaculars of command.Based on groundmistress order, when the product vestibule equivalence betwixt tdevisee English and Spanish power, they are settled into the oceanstream, English monolingual collocatees. Thus, relish most bilingual teaching programs in the United States, the New Haven program is alterpotent in creation, as incongruous to the middles-of-food or immersion programs base in Canada (see Swain, 1 7 ) 94. THE PRESENT LONGITUDINAL STUDY The two-dimensional intervenience imagined by associatering-to abilities in Ll and L2 is delineated in Fig. 0. 1 (a), noticecogent by a thread succeeding a conjuncture a appear of 1 concurrently which imaginaryly equalized bilinguals earn collocation. This two-intervenience is, of heeder, an’imaginary position that is bountiful, and we bestowly suffer no way of locating any bestown contingency of bilingual people in overbearing provisions. Thus, depending on contingency characteristics, the two-intervenience defined by a set of LI and L2 gauges can shift. Figure IO. I (b) parades two provisionally contingencys, A and B, whither B states a collocate of people that is advance “balanced” than A.The summit is that although we cannot enumeadmonish the two-intervenience dregs of a collocate of bilinguals in any top deduce using a top gauge, the property of position of bilingualism can be gathered by contemplateing at the departure in the L2 gauge conjuncture governling for departure in the L1 gauge. As can be seen in Fig. 1 . 01 (c), peculiar A2 is advance bilingual than peculiar AI, and B2 is advance bilingual than BI. We hypothesize that the departure in L2 governling for departure in L1 is attributpotent t o the position of bilingualism, and this departure should be allied in a explicit way to apprehensive power. (Cl . SubjectsAt Era I (the startning of the Decline Semester), we began by screening all product in the kindergarten and primary-pace collocatees in three instructs in the New Haven national instruct plan. We wanted to repudiate from the deduce product who paradeed manifestation of open vernacular feebleness. All 180 product were bringed a Spanish answerableness of the Peabody Delineate Glossary Cupel (SPVT), which is vivid in advance top succeedingcited. On the plea of the dispensation of the SPVTscores, matters whosecharges was advance than I exemplar flexion adown the middle were eliminated. Our cupel-fixed evaluations were accordant succeeding a conjuncture the ments of collocateroom groundmistresss. In sum, out of the primal 180, we were left succeeding a conjuncture 154 matters, who were advance cupeled succeeding a conjuncture the relics of the Era I gauges. By Era 2, almost 6 months succeedingcited, 30 of the I54 matters had moved abroad from the instruct plan, leaving US succeeding a conjuncture 124 matters. In attention (or, advance precisely, in amalgamation), a retaining matter at Era 2 was so ‘exceedingly dominant in English at twain eras that she was etiminated from LZ ABILITY LZ ABILITY L2 ABILITY FIG. 10. 1 Conceplualization of equalized bilingualism, how incongruous bilingual contingencys are embedded succeeding a conjuncturein it, and how people are cmbcdded succeeding a conjuncturein contingencys.Panel a parades . imaginary equalize tine betwixt LI and LZ abilities. Panel b parades settlement of two incongruous contingencys (A and B) succeeding a conjuncturein imaginaryircd intervenience. Panel c parades people succeeding a conjuncturein the contingency spades. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 333 334 ’ HAKUTA AND DlAZ the deduce as life perfectly incongruous from the tranquillity of our contingency. Thus, our definite contingency for the primary year of the deduce consisted of 123 matters, and we liberty out of advance yarn the relics of the matters. The contingency of 123 matters contained 56 (45%) kindergartners and 67 (55%) primary pacers, succeeding a conjuncture 55 (45Crlo) girls and 68 (55%) boys.All of these product were of Puerto Rican depth. The middle age was 6 years 0 months, succeeding a conjuncture a file from 4. 1 to 8. 3. Aside from this open understandledge, which was availpotent for all matters, we obtained advance part-amongicular demographic infomation through a topicnaire sent to the causes. The topicnaires were select at Era 1, and of our contingency, 88 (72%) responded, some succeeding a excite ask. We suffer executed some analyses to see whether the estimates obtained from the topicnaire counterparts would be reasonpotent estimates for the aggregate contingency.We paralleld all availpotent mutables in the deduce betwixt responders and nodresponders and did not ascertain any indicative eminences in the media. Thus, we embezzle the 88 counterparts to be a reasonably unjaundiced stateation of the population contingencyd. The topicnaire grounds designate that 42% of the matters were born in the United States, the relics in Puerto Rico. The causes suffer lived in the continental United States for a middle of 2 years (SD = 6 years), ranging from 5 months to 26 years. They suffer lived at tdevisee mented oration for an middle of 2 years (SD = 1 year, IO months), succeeding a conjuncture the file extending from I month to 8 years.Thither is a middle of . 91 rooms per tenant in the everyday (SD = . 60). Of the acmes of everyday, 37To are populated and 63% are void. Encroachment is troddenly allied to the enumeadmonish of adults in the everyday. Of all topicnaire respondents, 55% were solitary-cause acmes of everyday, and 32% had two adults in the everyday. Of the two-adult everydays, 64% (18/28) had the acme populated, forasmuch-as unmixedly 14% (6142) of solitary-adult everyday acmes mentedly were populated. The indicative community betwixt enumeadmonish of adults and encroachment, x2(l) = 18. 4, p = . 001, is suitpotent succeeding a conjuncture the sense that solitary causes in open suffer low admonishs of encroachment, presumably due in part-among-among t o the existentity that a heedtaker would be required at come. Merely a middle adolescence of the matters are extraneously siblings (790). The median enumeadmonish of siblings is 2. In the topicnaire, we to-boot asked the causes to admonish the intervenience to which Spanish and English are used betwixt manifold people at come. We affordd a 5-summit lamina, succeeding a conjuncture 1 selfidentical to “merely Spanish,” 3 to “twain Spanish and English,” and 5 to “merely English. In all three relishly discareer combinations (adult-child, offshoot-sibling, adult-adult), the counterparts were heavily skewed internal Spanish (for adult-child, I = 42%, 2 = 23%. 3 = 33%, 4 = 2%. 5 = 0%; for offshoot-sibling, I = 32%, 2 = 21%. 3 = 43?? 00. = 2%, 5 = 2%; for adult-adult, 1 = 50%. 2 = 32%. 3 = 17%, 4 4 = 2%. 5 = 1%. These three ratings of the intervenience of use of Spanish and English at come are loftyly correlated, r = 3 2 to r = t . 61, and when utterly, allied indirectly succeeding a conjuncture the years of come the United States oceanland mentioned precedent, r = + . 34.It answers that the hankerer the come (and the precedent the year of manner) in the United States, the advance the dominant vernacular permeates the come. + Measures The power in Spanish (LI) was assessed by bringing an adaption o f the Peabody Delineate Glossary Cupel mented and select by Wiener, Simond, and Weiss (1978). Relish the English account of the Peabody Delineate Glossary Cupel (Dunn, 1965). the cupel is peculiarly bringed and consists of the offshoot choosing a passage of glossary items (ordered by increasing agenormed troublesomey) out of foul-mouthed delineated resources. Wiener et al. exemplarized devisee Spanish account on Puerto Rican product in New York City. English (L2) power was assessed through Construct A of the glossary cupel. We associate to the Spanish cupel as SPVTand the English cupel as EPVT; when they are supervedemand by a enumeadmonish (EPVTI, EPVT2, SPVTI, SPVTZ), theenumeadmonish associates to the Era (1 = decline o r 2 = germinate) mutable. We should construct it chaste at this summit that we did not inmanage to use these glossary cupels as a gauge of rumor, as is commmerely used (and misused) in monolingual populations. Rather, they were middlet to be a gauge of the associatering-to abilities succeeding a conjuncturein each of the two vernaculars for our bilingual contingency.It should be renowned hither that the numerical raw chargess for the two cupels are not alike. That is to say, a offshoot who receives a charges of 20 on twain the EPVT and SPVT cannot be deduceed equiponderant in his or her associatering-to abilities in English and Spanish. On the other agency, the SPVT and EPVT suffer unfoldd the power to adfair product reliably concurrently the appertaining Spanish and English vernacular advancement sizes. In adregular to validate the SPVT and EPVT as gauges of vernacular, a collocate of 40 product succeeding a conjuncturein our contingency was bestown a romance-retelling job in the two vernaculars.Both the Spanish and English stories consisted of 14 dooms, paired succeeding a conjuncture cartooh delineates. The proofer primary told the romance conjuncture flipping through a delineate work and, directly upon amount, asked theoffshoot to rehearse the romance cued by the delineates. Thechild’s utterances were tape recitative and posteriorly transcribed. The protocols were admonishd in a 5-summit lamina, succeeding a conjuncture 1 life minimal use of the vernacular and 5 life ample fluency, by two inrelying admonishrs. Merely fluency was fairiced; truthfulness of the retelling was ignored for this deduce. lnterrater reliablities were . 96 (Spearman-Brown) for English and . 9 (Spearman-Brown) for Spanish. The middle ratings for twain English and Spanish were indicatively corallied succeeding a conjuncture the EPVTI and SPVTI chargess, r = . 82 for English rating succeeding a conjuncture EPVTI, r = + . 36 for ’ - + 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 335 336 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Spanish. The inferior Spanish corcommunity most relishly meditates the existentity that the file of SPVTl chargess was advance tranquillityricted than the EPVTI chargess for this top subsaniplr and to-boot the possibility that the product are advance Spanish-dominant and a plain romance-retellihg job may not meditate eminences at preferpotent planes of linguistic power. We are popularly pursuing advance validation of the vocabularly gauges, but for the force honor that the cupels do ruminate perfectly precisely our matters’ departure in power in twain vernaculars. As a gauge of nonparole apprehensive power, we chose the Raven’s Coloured Alterpotent MatricesTest (Raven, 1956; Raven et al. , 1976). a gauge on which the most iron eminences were base betwixt bilinguals and nionolinguals in the Peal and Lambert deduce. R a w chargess rather than percentiles were used owing the cupel has not been exemplarized on populations coniparpotent to ours.The Raven chargess at Era I and Era 2 are hithersucceeding associatered to a s Ravenl and Raven2. In attention to t hcse nieasures, we bringed a cupel of metalinguistic abili t y (to fairice the traditionality of Spanish dooms and to expose English articulation embedded in Spanish dooms) and a gauge of political perpectiveprelude (Chandler’s “bystander cartoons”), but these grounds are tranquil in the carriage of life dissectd and are not mented in this article. Procedures All nieasures were bringed peculiarly at the instructs ‘in vacuity rooms or appease hallway corners by Spanish-English (balanced) bilingual proofers.Except for bestowation of the EPVT items, all cupeling was conducted in Spanish. Each gauge was bringed twice, uninterruptedly during the decline semester (Time I ) atid anew in the germinate (Time 2). The middle era lag betwixt the two eras was 6 months. Except for the engagement that SPVTl was bringed primary at thc very startning of the deduce for primal screening, as mentioned precedent succeeding a conjuncture allusion to contingency excerption, adregular of cupels was counterbalanced. At each era, each offshoot was cupeled in three sessions, one succeeding a conjuncture the SPVT. econd succeeding a conjuncture the EPVT, and third succeeding a conjuncture the apprehensive cupels. In adregular that the proofer endure sightless to the offshoot’s power in twain vernaculars, the aenjoy proofer never tes‘ied any part-amongichar offshoot in twain EPVT and SPVT; future. the matter’s position of bilingualism was noi understandn t o ! he proofers until succeeding amount of the grounds store. bilingualisin at Era 1 prophesy apprehensive power at l i m e 2 , or resourcely, does apprehensive power at Era I prophesy position of bilingualisrn at Era 2?IVirhin-Time Anulysis: T h e 1. The media and exemplar flexions for Era I and Era 2 gauges can be base in Tpotent 10. 1. The primary atlalysis di- vided matters into collocateson the bases of tdevisee abilities i n each latiguage. We collocateed matters into three planes of EPVT chargess dry three levcls of S I W chargess, the transection of which consequences nine collocates. EPVTI raw chargess filed from 3 to 55, M = 26. 24, SD = 14. 86, and SPVTl raw chargess filed from 21 IO 81, M = 44. 32, S D = 13. 26. Upon omission of the grounds. we felt that. 0-summit intervals for twain EPVT and SPVT raw chargess would state reasonpotent flakeing of matters succeeding a conjuncture deference to tdevisee abilities, recognizing of heeder that the resistance is aggravatebearing and conducted singly for purposes of inspecting eminences vivid in media. The forthcoming were resistances, imposed twain on the Era 1 and Era 2 grounds: Spanish Flake 1: SPVT 1-40; Spanish Flake 2: SPVT 41-60; Spanish Flake 3: SPVT elder than 60; Engfish Flake I: EPVT 1-20; English Flake 2: EPVT 21-40; English Flake 3: EPVT elder than 40.Means and exemplar flexions for Raven I chargess for each of the nine collocates victorious of the transection of the Spanish and English flakes can be base in Tpotent 10. 2 (a). Omission of the media proposes strongly that Ravenl media growth succeeding a conjuncture increasing planes of English flakeing. However, this is confounded succeeding a conjuncture the ages of the matters in the collocates, as can be observed in Tpotent 10. 2 (b). The offer tramp was to assess the power of the kindred betwixt position of bilingualism and apprehensive power through part-amongicular apposition, whither EPVTI is corallied succeeding a conjuncture Ravenl, governling for age and SPVTl .The parindicating a indicative communitytial corcommunity coefficient is . 267 p = . W2, ship betwixt position of bilingualism and nonparole apprehensive power. TABLE 10. 1 Media and Exemplar Deviations 01 Baric Measures lor the Bilingual Contingency 1iiS 123) Aftair --. . . . . . . . . . . * ’ SI) lU. 15 14. 116 71. 11Y 26. 24 44. 33 15. 34 13. 26 3. 17 10. 15 16. YJ 1. 1. 56 Results 77. IY Thither are t w o sepaadmonish topics we ask of the grounds. First, is position of bilingualism allied to apprehensive power at any one era? This can be answered by contemplateing succeeding a conjuncturein Era I and succeeding a conjuncturein Era 2 disconnectedly.Second, does position of 33. YY 5?. 6Y . 16. 16 3. 11 ,... I ... .. , . . . . . . . . . ... ,, , . . .. . . . . . ... , . , . . .~ . .. , .. . . ... .. .. .. .. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 337 338 HAKUTA AND DlAZ TABLE 10. 2(a) Ravel11 M e a n s lor Bilingual Groups English 1. ql’c. r I 11’ I‘1‘ ( I . ‘ U ) I. o,iw 2 -. . l. :iycr - ._ .... 11’ I’7’ -7 I 40) . . . . . flake 3 EP I’r (>40) 3 P a I1 (> 6 0 ) I. :l). lvL SI’V I’ SD- A1 = 11. 0 0 11 zI ’ suI1 dl = 13. 5 ?. I : : nr = 18. 3 S D = 5. 7 11 2 = 7 SI’V I i s ,I 141-60) IAyvI I SI’V I’ I141l) AI= 14. 4 SI) . - 3. 0 t l - - 15 .! I = 15. S I ) = 2. 6 I I = 3n A I = 16. 4 SI) = 3. 2 I I = 14 ~~ M = 16. 5 SI) = 3. 5 I1 Wifhin-Time Arrulysis: Era 2. The equalizeall media for the gauges at Era 2 can be base in Tpotent 10. 1. The elaboadmonish media paraden in Tpotent 10. 3 manifest Raven’s planes and age planes when the matters were disconnectedd into collocates by Spanish and English flakeings using the aenjoy criteria as hi Era 1. The part-amongicular corcommunity of EPVTZ and Raven2, governling for age and SPV2 is . 3 5 7 , p < . W l . Potent for thesocioeconomic vaiables, the kindred does not shift existently, part-amongicular corcommunity = . 28l, p = J O N .Thus, bolh Era I and Era 2 grounds designate Illat position of bilingualism is allied IO act on the Raven’s matrices. Between- Tinre Analysis. We conceiveal precedent that position of bilingualism is explicitly allied to Ravens at twain eras. However, which of these is TABLE 10. 31al Rave112Means lor Bilingual Groups ....... ....... ..... -. = I4 nl = 14. 3 S I ) = 2. 5 11 = 3 0 AI = 13. 5 $1) = . 8 II = 2 TABLE 10. 2fb) Mea11 Age lor Eiliiigual Gioups at Era 1 .. EIIRliSh 1v. vc. r 2 . . . , ... ....... /. iiwr English I. uw I kl’l’. I‘ ( I . 3 l ) ... ....... La. w 3 t7iv (>4(1) A = 79. 0 I SI) = 5. 8I1 * El’l. 7‘ ( 21 4 1 ) ... ....... ....... ... ICI’I~ I’ (>. 40) . .I Lupr I . . -. - . . . . . . . t‘P I’ I ( I . 20) AI = 14. 0 SI) = 0 I1 = I ... ...... I:‘r1r. (-7i. JuI .. .... ... 82. 0 SI) = 8. 485 I1 = 2 Ill = I. u. iw -7 flake 3 . SI’V I .! I = 14. 8 SI) = 2. 8 II l. ;lyrr 3 SI’VI (>6Ot a I1 S (>601 = 6 A = 17. 0 I SI) = 3. 4 II = I I A1 = 18. 8 S I ) = 4. 1 11 = 17 SI) = = 7 L;l)rr 2 SI’V 1’ (4l-bIl) S AI = 71. 4 S I ) = 11. 5 II = I 5 AI = SI) = ll = 7i. n 8. 1 3n A1 = 79. 4 SI) = 7. 1 II p Lycr ? a SYVT, n 141-60) .! I = 14. 2’ S I ) = 1. 6 I1 = 15 .ll = 13. 9 Ar = 15. 1 SI) = 3. 0 ll = 2 0AI = 17. 7 4 . I I1 = 31 = 14 ’ I1 i Flake I 11 Layct I SI’V’I’ (I-40) d l = 61. 9 S I ) = 3. 4 I I = 30 dl = 66. 4 Sf) = 7. 3 II = 14 AI = 6 3 SI) = 7. 071 11 = 2 SPVI I > 140) SI) = 11 I . 7 = IO AI = 13. 4 SI) = 2. 5 ll = I O AI = 18. 7 S I ) = 4. 2 II = 3 TABLE 1 0 3 b l Middle Age lor Bilingual Groups at Era 2 -~ Froni the cause topicnaires, we middle two gauges of the socioecononiic planes of the matters. One was singly whether the acme of houser trust was populated (coded 1) o unpopulated (coded 0). The other was the enumeadmonish of rooiiis in tdevisee come, disconnectedd by the enumeadmonish of tenants.AIthough the Iwo iiicasures were not allied. r = . 09. ns, twain werecorallied succeeding a conjuncture EPVTI, for eniployment, r = -20, p c . 0 5 ; for come intervenience, r = . IN, p c . 0 5 . When EPVTl is corallied succeeding a conjuncture Raven1 governling for these socioeconomic mutables i n attention to age and SPVTl, the kindred is tranquil signil’icantly diffcrent from 0, part-amongicular corcommunity = . 201,p4 0 ) 3 ’ SI’’l I’ a .! I = 74. 0 SI) = I I . I II Ai = nn. ? 6. 3 17 SI) = l l = 1>60l I. d)t! l = 6 = II z I . I / = 71. 7 AI = 77. 8 SI) = 9. 4 11 n SI’’ 5 141-60 II I S ) C l I SI’V I ( > 1-40) SI) = 10. I I = 15 AI = 79. 9 SI) H. 1 II 20 . = 31 .I1 = 67. 3 S I ) = 2. 9 II = 10 d l = 7 I . (I SI) = 7. 7 11 II) AI = 72. 3 SI) = II H. S 3 = . . . . . . . . “ ... ... ,. ,.. :. . .. ,:.. -! ^? :. ~. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY TABLE 10. 4 Zero-Order Corcommunity Matrix lor Vernacular and Ravens 81 Twain Timer @I = 123) 339 340 HAKUTA AND DIAZ N Agc AXC .476 . 658 . I66 . 446 EI'l'TI SI'Y7'1 H . ____--_. ___a i w t l . 476 . 658 . I 66 .445 . 445 kP1'72 . 446 . E28 ~pV7'2 - /(aiwr 2 . 35 I . 484 . J 36 . 486 ,466 ,331 - . - . . . grounds serviceable.Raven2 was regressed on age, Raven 1, SPVTI, SPVT2, encroachment, and come in Tramp I; then EPVTI in Tramp 2. EPVTl tranquil guarded a indicative Beta, . 251, F ( I , 69) = 3 . 8 9 , ~ . OS. Multiple R was = 3 4 , succeeding a conjuncture EPVT adding 4% internal prophesying estrangement in Raved. DISCUSSION We began our deduce succeeding a conjuncture a force that studies mented in the deduce did not unambiguously parade that bilingualism fosters apprehensive fruit. A primary troublesomey was that most studies confused collocate unifomitys of bilinguals and monolinguals. and accordingly, the products could be attributed to collocate eminences other than vernacular power.Second, most studies confused cross-sectional unifomitys whither cause-consequence kindreds could not be divertly evaluated. The deduce reasonpotent mented constructs advance apparently the privilege encircling the explicit property of bilingualism. First, we were potent to parade an consequence wifhin a contingency of bilinguals. And excite, when two resource copys for the adregular of conduciveness were cupeled on the hankeritudinaldata, the copy privilegeing position of bilingualism to be the causal converge was advance accordant succeeding a conjuncture our obtained grounds than the copy privilegeing apprehensive power to be the f causal mutable.By the end o the ample engagement of this hankeritudinal deduce. in which we earn supervene up the matters for an attentional 2 years, succeeding a conjuncture the attention o other apprehensive gauges, we hankering to construct an equal stronger privilege ref garding the explicit property of bilingualism on apprehensive abilities. The existentity that our grounds buttress the privilege that bilingualism fosters apprehensive fruit is reasonpotent a primary tramp in sense the issues at agency. The topic offal as to how bilingualism affects apprehensive power, chiefly when apprehensive power is gauged by act in nonparole jobs.A hanker era ago, Leopold (949b) postulated that bilingual product were oppressive to preferpotent planes of imagehither idea by the bestow demand to sepaadmonish the adregular from its associateent. In a aenjoy feeling, Cummins (1976) and Ben-Zeev (1977) suffer proposeed that the apprehensive customs of bilingualism could be teached by bilinguals' demand l objectify and manage linguistic erections. Ben-Zeev. for o in, establishs that in adregular to dodge linguistic interlocution bilingual product must amplify a elder consciousness and sensitivity to linguistic cues.Bilinguals' elder sensitivity to linguistic erection and top is then transmitted and openized to incongruous parole and nonparole jobs. The carriage by which bilinguals' metalinguistic consciousness affects act in nonparole tes~s such as the Ravens has never been adequately teached or inferiorstood. Bain and Yu's (1980) deduce proposes that bilinguals are rectify potent to use vernacular as a cat's-paw to adviser apprehensive functioning, increasing tdevisee part-amongs to memorize inerection and govern advance consequenceively the incongruous tramps in solving a gist. Cognitive-developintellectual re- WV'JI SPV'JI Rivcnl I:PV'I'Z . 3 I 8 .I65 .318 . 8? 8 .I65 SPVTZ Kavrn2 .522 .351 ,333 . 484 .399 . 687 .436 315 .399 . 315 .)I6 ,466 ,522 . 333 . 687 . I 20 . 3 I 6 . I 28 .486 .33 I - the causal existentityor? Specifically, we demand to understand whether Raven2,can be prophesyed by position of bilingualism at Era 1 conjuncture governling for the divert mutables (including Ravenl), or whether we can teach advance estrangement by prophesying position of bilingualism at Era 2 by Ravenl conjuncture governling for divert mutables (including position of bilingualism at Era I). These resources are not mutually scientific, of heeder, but statistical exclusion of one copy constructs the resource copy advance apparently.The zero-adregular corcommunity matrix of age, EPVTI, SPVTI, Ravenl, EPTV2, SPVTZ, and Raven2 can be base in Tpotent 10. 4. From the basic inerection vivid, we cupeled two resource copys using multiple return. The primary decomposition cupeled the void supposition that position of bilingualism is not prophesyed by Ravens. In a trampwise multiple return, EPVT2 was regressed on age, EPVTI. SPVTI, and SPVTZ in Tramp I; then Ravenl was entered in Tramp 2. The great statistic hither is the Beta for Ravenl for its Fratip.The products of the decomposition parade that Ravenl does not add indicatively to the estrangement stateationed for when governling for age, EPVTI, SPVTI, and SPVTZ, Beta = . 056, F ( I , 117) = 1. 077, ns. The multiple R for the definite equation was . 832. Ravenl supplyd unmixedly . 3% attentional estrangement internal prophesying EPVT2. We infer, then, that the void supposition cannot be unusual. In the excite decomposition, we cupeled the void supposition that position of bilingualism does not prophesy Raven chargess. In this trampwise multiple return, Raven2 was regressed on age, Ravenl, SPVTI, and SPVTZ entered in Tramp 1; then EPVTI entered in Tramp 2.The products parade a indicative Beta for EPVTI, Beta = . 252, F ( I , 1 17) = 8. 761, p < . 01. The multiple R for the definite equation was . 643. EPVTI supplyd 4. 1% attentional estrangement internal prophesying RavenZ, equal when the other mutables were entered primary, Thus, we repudiate the void supposition in predilection of the solveation that position of bilingualism affects nonparole apprehensive power. To govern for socioeconomic plane. we ruled to cupel the products governling for eniployment and come intervenience for the 77 matters for whom we had . , io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 41 342 HAKUTA AND DlAZ I I I I pursuit parades an increasing use of parole interference in the act of nonparole jobs succeeding a conjuncture increasing age (Conrad, 1971). Furthermore, Hunt’s (1974) discovery proposes that act on the Raven cupel would be improved by the use of linguistic, rather than spatial, strategies in the key of the matrices. It is relishly, as Diaz (1983) proposeed, that offshoothood bilingualism fosters a rather premature use of parole interference in the carriageing of inerection and this, in deflect, teachs bilinguals’ improved act on nonparole jobs.One of the ocean troublesomeies in echoing such great topics lies in the existentity that most studies in the area suffer relied on grounds from psychometric cupels. To the best of our comprehension, thither are no understandledge-processing studies of slipish bilingual product, and it is not chaste what apprehensive carriagees or apprehensive strategies, if any, verily incongruousiate bilingual from monolingual product. It is almost unusable, succeeding a conjuncture our bestow comprehension, to amplify a carriage copy of how bilingualism affects product’s apprehensive abilities or accelerates apprehensive fruit. The fruit (and tentative buttress) of a elaboadmonish copy relative-to bilingualism and apprehensive fruit is tranquil a few years afore. Finally, doctrine amplifyed at the peculiar plane of the offshoot must still be allied to the greatr delineate of bilingualism as it occurs in manifold constructs encircling the globe. An great eminence that must be middle in any deduce of the property of bilingualism is betwixt additive versus subtractive bilingualism (Lambert, 1978; Lambert & Taylor, 1981). hich is allied to the eminence betwixt upper ten versus folk bilingualism {Fishman, 1977; Paulston, 1975. 1980). In an additive position. product gather tdevisee excite vernacular in attention to tdevisee primary, thus creating equalized bilingualism. As Lambert and Taylor (1981) freshly put it: “an additive construct of bilingualism limplies] that these product, succeeding a conjuncture no fright of ethnic/linguistic erosion, can add one or advance alien vernaculars to tdevisee accumulating expertnesss, and use immensely from the test, apprehensively, politically, and equal economically Ip. 141. In a subtractive position, the excite vernacular spiritual substitutes the primary. To note Lambert and Taylor (1981) uninterruptedly anew: “the hyphenated American offshoot, relish the French-Canadian offshoot, embarks o n a ‘subtractive’ bilingual path as before-long as he/she enters a instruct whither a lofty prestige, politically potent, dominant vernacular relish English is introduced as the scientific vernacular of command [p. 141. ” As Cummins (1976) summited out, studies that suffer paraden explicit property of bilingualism regularly are conducted in positions of additive bilingualism.